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You probably mean instant quantity recognition Counting requires a rather complex high-level process. For an animal to count you'd need: Memory Consciousness (to access and manipulate that memory) Basic algebra skills Some basic semantic abstraction mechanism (ie, language) which will probably have to be recursive as well. Some symbolic mechanism ...


Try: The development of topography in the visual cortex: a review of models NV Swindale - Network: Computation in neural systems, 1996 - Taylor & Francis. https://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/academic/class/15883-f13/readings/swindale-1996.pdf or: Congenital visual pathway abnormalities: a window onto cortical stability and plasticity MB Hoffmann, SO Dumoulin ...


It is something of an oversimplification to say that there are separate visual pathways for both color and shape. There are many cells, even in V1, which are selective for both colour and shape (or at least orientation). While there are regions more sensitive to some features than others, there are plenty of neurons which combine features. It is also ...


They are bound unconsciously, and this is known as the binding problem. You can make experiments (using very short durations and/or "masks") however, to interfere with this process. The result is that sometimes you consciously bind the wrong color and shape.

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