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15

"Science" refers to a methodology for obtaining knowledge, and often to the knowledge itself as well. Science is often confused with another term "technology", that refers to the application of such knowledge for practical uses. Some people might incorrectly refer to "computers" and "cars" as examples of "science", when in fact they are examples of ...


9

Interesting question! Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states, motivations, etc. to others and recognize that others have separate intentions, states, and motivations from his or her own. The specific phenomenon that you are describing may stem from this concept called naive realism, or the idea that we see the world as it truly is, and ...


8

I'm not sure about children recalling memories of their ancestors, but there is such a thing as Genetic Memory. In one study mice who were trained to fear a specific smell passed on their trained aversion to their descendant. Who were then extremely sensitive to, and fearful of the same smell, even though they had never encountered it, nor been trained to ...


7

No, intuition is not related to ESP in modern cognitive science. A modern view on intuitive thinking While ESP certainly retains its pseudoscience status (e.g., Rouder and Morey, 2011), intuition and intuitive thinking has been used in the psychological literature in evolving ways over the years. Outside the heydays of Skinnerian radical behaviorism, the ...


6

I found that dF/F0 stands for the relative difference in fluorescence at a certain wavelength.


5

I think the examples refer to a variety of possible terms. In cognitive science, there is much interest in cases where justification is triggered unconsciously. The general tendency to justify one's decisions - especially the bad ones - is called self-justification: Self-justification describes how, when a person encounters cognitive dissonance, or a ...


5

It seems to depend on the reason for denying their illness... Egosyntonic: ... a term referring to behaviors, values, feelings that are in harmony with or acceptable to the needs and goals of the ego, or consistent with one's ideal self-image. ... Many personality disorders are considered to be egosyntonic ... Anorexia ... is also considered ...


4

One search term that might be useful is temporal discounting. Here's a relevant Psychlopedia article, and a relatively recent paper that may have some useful references for navigating the literature.


4

These should get you started, relating to spontaneous behaviour of humans in society, in contrast to normality behaviour: Spontaneous Alternation Behavior by W.N. Dember, C.L. Richman How does complex behavior spontaneously emerge in the brain? - Lisa Zyga Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity - R. Russo, H. J. Herrmann ...


3

The English Analytical Psychologist H. G. Baynes first described the provisional life in a chapter of his book "Analytical Psychology and the English Mind". For a good comprehensive description see http://jungiancenter.org/essay/jung-provisional-life


3

They are interchangeable. ADD was a term used until around the mid 80s and ADHD aftewards. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 1980 (DSM-III) published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) it was named ADD and the name changed to ADHD in the 1987 edition, DSM-III-R (which I can find no online sources of). ADD has been ...


3

So far, I've found that the American Psychiatric Association's DSM 5 has made it abundantly clear they no longer consider gender variance itself a disorder, to the point of a 2012 position statement on access to care, a 2012 "Position Statement on Discrimination Against Transgender and Gender Variant Individuals", and updated language in the DSM. It also ...


3

As an Industrial/Organizational Psychologist practicing Human Factors in a large organization, I use scientific method to inform product and service design. Our dependent variables (effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, enjoyment, coolness) are measured across controlled experimental conditions. We practice stronger science than most physical scientists ...


3

Self-selection bias is probably the best domain specific term. Generally, this is called assortativity, as in assortative mating.


3

There are two ways to interpret/answer this question. First, is there a recognized disorder that is characterized by mania in the absence of depression? Second, are there people who experience mania in the absence of depression? The answer to the first interpretation is no. There is currently no "major manic disorder" or "unipolar mania." Given the DSM-5 ...


2

when it comes to psychology it feels to me a bit like astrology, where there are some things that can work, but mostly because of auto-suggestion, or any other kind of suggestions, and things like the placebo (or even the nocebo) effect. So, I wonder if psychology is a science and why so many people rely on it. A key point is that your question seems to ...


2

Based on Josh' answer, I eventually ended up with 'delay gratification' and planning to use the Delay Gratification Inventory to measure this in participants. Hoerger M, Quirk SW, Weed NC. Development and validation of the Delaying Gratification Inventory. Psychological assessment. 2011;23(3):725-738. doi:10.1037/a0023286.


2

Is 'intuition' related to 'extrasensory perception' (ESP)? As far as I know, ESP is not accepted by the scientific community but I could not conclude the same about 'intuition'. You're correct, ESP is not accepted by the community, and presuming, for the sake of argument, it could be true, the scientific experiments should be trivial to be done and ...


2

Short answer "Perceptual competence" is "the ability to perceive". Background I Googled "perceptual competence" and the first hit was an open source article (Lencz et al., 2003). They define perceptual competence as: [The] initial representation of to-be-remembered material [in the context of working memory]. Perceptual competency itself can include ...


2

The dictionary definition of "unconscious" is to not be capable of conscious thought, ie, be asleep and unaware. Technically, you are unconscious when you are asleep. When you get knocked out ie. a concussion, it is thought that the forces from the injury disrupt the normal cellular activities in the reticular activating system located in the areas ...


1

I think the most commonly used term for this is the curse of knowledge. On p1233 of Camerer et al (1989) it's defined as the phenomenon whereby "In predicting the judgments of others, agents are unable to ignore the additional information they possess." This seems to be the first time this term was used in print, although the authors state that the ...


1

Short answer is that psychiatrists are medical doctors and (more often than not) medical researchers, and thus psychiatrists themselves often do not practice psychotherapy. Psychiatrists Psychiatrists are physicians, which means they have received a medical degree (M.D.) and have completed medical training, along with an additional four-year residency in ...


1

This is sometimes called the "mirror imaging" bias -- imagining or assuming that other people mirror your own thoughts / beliefs / desires / intentions. See for example: The classic reference is Heuer's Psychology of Intelligence Analysis,now available from the CIA website. See Chapter 6. Scroll down to "Be wary of mirror images". It is mentioned on the ...



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