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9

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are mathematical constructs, originally designed to approximate biological neurons. Each "neuron" is a relatively simple element --- for example, summing its inputs and applying a threshold to the result, to determine the output of that "neuron". Several decades of research went into discovering how to build network ...


9

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...


8

It's the other way around: Psychology is a discipline within Cognitive Science, which includes Artificial Intelligence, Neuroscience, and possibly Philosophy of Mind. Research work in Psychology presumably makes you a Cognitive Scientist.


7

Apologies in advance for the long answer. I tried to narrow down the scope by focusing on only a single construct, and only a single aspect of validity, and it still turned out like an essay... Let's take intelligence research as an example. This work started with an intelligence concept – a fairly vague and ambiguous idea about a personality trait that ...


7

They are ordered based on when they were discovered/named (as pointed about by Ana's comment). Alpha and beta waves were among the first signals observed in EEG data. From Wikipedia: Alpha waves were discovered by German neurologist Hans Berger, most famous for his invention of the EEG. Alpha waves were among the first waves documented by Berger, along ...


7

The cognitive sciences are largely an element of the behavioral sciences. The subject matter of the behavioral sciences is animal or human behavior. It is an interdisciplinary endeavor that involves a diverse set of fields such as psychology, ethology, behavioral genetics, criminology, etc. The cognitive sciences study how the mind determines behavior via ...


7

No, intuition is not related to ESP in modern cognitive science. A modern view on intuitive thinking While ESP certainly retains its pseudoscience status (e.g., Rouder and Morey, 2011), intuition and intuitive thinking has been used in the psychological literature in evolving ways over the years. Outside the heydays of Skinnerian radical behaviorism, the ...


6

The two concepts are analogous and mutually illustrative, but empirically refer to different levels of analysis: behavioral and neural. Habituation Habituation is a form of non-associative learning, specifically, learning that a stimulus is behaviorally unimportant. If I loudly and repeatedly bang on a metal pot immediately behind your head, you will ...


6

As per the comments to the question, human research observing this distinction does exist. CHCH possibly alludes to an article by Gläscher, Daw, Dayan and O'Doherty (2010) which concisely defines the difference between model-free learning and model-based learning: Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations (“states”) and ...


5

Arnon's answer is right, but I thought it might help to explain why. Cognitive Science is the study of minds. This can include human minds, other animal minds, and artificial minds. The method could be to study how agents with minds behave in experiments (psychology), to study the physiological properties of biological minds (neuroscience), to create and ...


5

Short answer: Behaviorism treats the human brain/mind like a black box whose internal processes cannot be known. As such, behaviorists claim that it only makes sense to study the association between a given stimulus and the behavioral output it produces. Cognitivists, on the other hand, examine internal mental processes (attention, executive control, ...


5

In The Personality Puzzle (2012), David Funder describes a taxonomy of four different kinds of data that I've always found useful. The Personality Puzzle is a textbook in personality psychology, so its take on psychology is somewhat more as a social than biological science (though biology has its place too). Briefly, here are the four kinds of data as ...


5

I'm not sure about children recalling memories of their ancestors, but there is such a thing as Genetic Memory. In one study mice who were trained to fear a specific smell passed on their trained aversion to their descendant. Who were then extremely sensitive to, and fearful of the same smell, even though they had never encountered it, nor been trained to ...


5

You never know what's gonna offend someone...That being said, "hallucinations in people with schizophrenia" does seem the safer option, but "schizophrenics" (not capitalized) is used plenty often. Here's an interesting Google result: Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA) is a self-help group for persons who have schizophrenia or a schizophrenia-related illness. ...


5

There is no agreed-upon definition of affective cueing because it's not a proper name. If you google for "affective cueing" you only find a handful of hits and in them the term is used differently, mostly to indicate that some cue (a stimulus that carries information) is of positive versus negative valence. In contrast, affective priming refers to a ...


4

One search term that might be useful is temporal discounting. Here's a relevant Psychlopedia article, and a relatively recent paper that may have some useful references for navigating the literature.


4

Logical semantics is one of the three sections of logical semiotics (in addition to syntax and pragmatics) dealing with the relations between signs (in particular the expressions) and reality, to which they refer. In addition to basic semantic functions, we can include, e.g. semantic connotation, determination and denotation, where the basic terms of ...


4

Really, there's two kinds of data in cognitive science, information (the data used by the cognitive systems we're interested in), and experimental data (and similar, such as correlational data), which we collect and analyse to try and better understand cognition. It sounds like your question is about information, so I'll focus on that, but please correct me ...


4

These should get you started, relating to spontaneous behaviour of humans in society, in contrast to normality behaviour: Spontaneous Alternation Behavior by W.N. Dember, C.L. Richman How does complex behavior spontaneously emerge in the brain? - Lisa Zyga Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity - R. Russo, H. J. Herrmann ...


3

There are many who will tell you authoritatively that a disease is acquired (e.g. infection, cancer, etc.) whereas disorder is something curable or genetic. These are imprecise and untrue. Basically a disturbance in normal functioning can be either a disorder or a disease, regardless of it's curability or method of acquisition. From your link, the second ...


3

I agree with Arnon that cognitive science is, by most people's definition, multi-disciplinary. And one of those disciplines included is psychology. However, if you were to attend a cognitive science conference or read a cognitive science journal, you would see that it mostly includes areas of psychology that broadly relate to cognition. There are many ...


3

The English Analytical Psychologist H. G. Baynes first described the provisional life in a chapter of his book "Analytical Psychology and the English Mind". For a good comprehensive description see http://jungiancenter.org/essay/jung-provisional-life


2

You might be referring to mimicry or linguistic mimicry. Mimicry is more broad than just vocabulary and expressions, but the general principle of imitating what others in a social group are doing applies.


2

Philosopher Walter Kaufmann calls this fear "decidophobia", but I have never read and cannot find any psychological publications using that term. If you think about the phenomenon, it becomes apparent that anyone can clearly observe when a person hesitates to decide, but even that person herself could probably not clearly identify all the emotions that ...


2

There is some evidence that thought disorder (also called loose association) arises, at least partially, from increased spreading activation; schizophrenics, for example, often show a greater increase in activation to indirectly related words compared to unrelated words, than do non-thought disordered controls. This is primarily a cognitive mechanism, not a ...


2

It is hard to delineate emotion completely from thoughts or sensations, because emotion can contain both. If you're in a certain emotional state, that means you're reading your bodily state via a series of sensations (so called interoception, as opposed to sensations originating from the world around you). You can also think about the fact that you're ...


2

After searching a bit more on the Internet I found that the more used term is provisional life not "provisional living" and found a definition in a Jungian lexicon: Provisional life A term used to describe an attitude toward life that is more or less imaginary, not rooted in the here and now, commonly associated with puer psychology. Acordin to the ...


2

Oddly enough, the place where you find the most information about this topic is where there's a lot of money to be made from it. Facebook games or games in general. If you focus on "why do people like to play some games and not others", then you're asking more of an economical question, and there will be a lot more information on the topic. Example: ...



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