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7

The actual act of "Trying to see only the sentence which confirms his beliefs" would generally be called confirmation bias.


7

Priming: Stimulus A influences perception/processing of stimulus B. E.g. you walk past an Italian restaurant and smell pizza. When you enter the supermarket and consider what you want to make for dinner, you might be more strongly inclined to bake a pizza, then when you hadn't smelled the delectable pizza from the restaurant. Anchoring: The first ...


7

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are mathematical constructs, originally designed to approximate biological neurons. Each "neuron" is a relatively simple element --- for example, summing its inputs and applying a threshold to the result, to determine the output of that "neuron". Several decades of research went into discovering how to build network ...


6

I'm not completely sure, but you may be referring to Syncope, a medical term which describes events such as fainting or passing out which occurs upon low blood flow to the brain. As a result it can occur when under shock or trauma or a post-effect of stress. Obviously, one would expect the opposite to happen in half the events, such as after vomiting, ...


6

Does the locking refer to the initiation of the measurement with starting cue being being the presentation of stimulus or the response of the subject? More or less, yes. When measuring brain activity, you usually make a long, continuous recording during which you expose your study participants to a task over and over again. There's a lot of noise ...


6

Déformation professionnelle is probably the closest match: Déformation professionnelle is a French phrase, meaning a tendency to look at things from the point of view of one's own profession rather than from a broader perspective. It is often translated as "professional deformation" or "job conditioning". The implication is that professional training, ...


6

The first one is a test if a child has understood conservation of matter. It is an example of a conservation task. These belong to the tests used in the framework of Piaget to test what stage of development a child is in. Here is a video demonstration of the cookie task. Here is another question on this site pertaining to a different conservation task. The ...


5

Sounds like what you're describing is "semantic satiation". Wikipedia explains: The explanation for the phenomenon was that verbal repetition repeatedly aroused a specific neural pattern in the cortex which corresponds to the meaning of the word. Rapid repetition causes both the peripheral sensorimotor activity and the central neural activation to fire ...


5

Consider persecutory delusion. They are compulsive in that they manifest as extreme, irrational suspicions with little or no basis in reality. The irrational components often involve absurdly elaborate conspiracy theories, so this is probably close enough to "the entire world", but it often goes much further than "looking down" into more severe forms of ...


5

If you had asked about cognitive distortions, I probably could've answered straight away about one of those! I think it might be an illusion of transparency. Your example somewhat aligns to the definition provided by Gilovich, Medvec & Savitsky (1998): "... we refer to this tendency to overestimate the extent to which others can read one's internal ...


5

You never know what's gonna offend someone...That being said, "hallucinations in people with schizophrenia" does seem the safer option, but "schizophrenics" (not capitalized) is used plenty often. Here's an interesting Google result: Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA) is a self-help group for persons who have schizophrenia or a schizophrenia-related illness. ...


4

Habituation: habituation is the first word that comes to my mind (but see also Desensitisation). Habituation is a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations. For example, the first night that you sleep in a new house, you will typically notice many noises. Over the course of a few nights you learn to progressively react less and ...


4

Repression is the unconscious exclusion of impulses, desires, or fears from the conscious mind, while suppression is the conscious exclusion of similar thoughts.


4

The specific event you mention (my paraphrasing: loss of consciousness and motor control leading to a sleep/coma-like state due to acute circumstantial stress) might best be classified according to @Monacraft's excellent answer. To build on that somewhat, we've discussed in chat that there might be important distinctions among various levels of ...


4

If what you are seeking is how to present material so that cognitive overload does not occur, you are in the realm of learning theory.[1] Cognitive load theory and schema (learning) theory go hand in hand in. Schemas are frameworks of information (like a steel-framed skyscraper in your mind); they start as very basic ("This is a cell") and become more ...


4

Logical semantics is one of the three sections of logical semiotics (in addition to syntax and pragmatics) dealing with the relations between signs (in particular the expressions) and reality, to which they refer. In addition to basic semantic functions, we can include, e.g. semantic connotation, determination and denotation, where the basic terms of ...


3

A heuristic consists of preferences that help you decide in a situation where you do not have enough information or do not care enough to make an informed decision. For example, when you want to buy yoghurt, but are no nutritionist, you might decide on which yoghurt you buy by the familiarity of the brand name (you prefer the familiar, this is called the ...


3

The three levels of the Stroop test you describe are the following: Congruent stimuli Incongruent stimuli Incongruent stimuli alternated with the Reverse Stroop effect


3

Is pedophilia a sexual orientation? The common definition of "sexual orientation" is: A preference for sexual partners of a specific gender. The common definition of "pedophilia" is: A preference for sexual partners of a specific age (prepubescent). Since age is not the same as gender, it follows that pedophilia is not a sexual orientation by ...


3

Egocentrism? I can't even find the Family Circus comic where the boy is talking on the phone, playing with a yo-yo, and says, "Look what I can do, grandma!" Update: Huh, I didn't find that comic, but it's still a Family Circus comic that accompanies the topic. Grandma: "Tell me, Jeffy, what was this fun dream about last night?" Jeffy: "Don't you remember, ...


3

I think in most scientific contexts, "brain training" refers to working memory training. Scott Barry Kaufman wrote a nice article entitled In Defense of Working Memory Training. Hulme and Melby-Lervag wrote a meta-analysis about working memory training. They note that these exercises would not generalize to other mental skills such as reading comprehension, ...


3

In the introduction to their study, Conradi et al. (2006) give a brief and very good overview over the different approaches to classify and measure attachment styles. I encourage everyone, who is interested in the subject to read it. However, since it is the answer to my question, I will summarise it here. As I said in my question, research on attachment ...


2

Not sure about compulsive, but I heard of the term "Quantified self" being used for people interested in all kinds of information about themselves.


2

It seems to me that it'd be a type of a tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon caused by bilingualism. If you don't use German regularly, it might be attributed to language attrition, but this seems unlikely if you're still being exposed to German more than English. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tip-of-the-tongue_phenomenon#Effects_of_bilingualism



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