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9

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are mathematical constructs, originally designed to approximate biological neurons. Each "neuron" is a relatively simple element --- for example, summing its inputs and applying a threshold to the result, to determine the output of that "neuron". Several decades of research went into discovering how to build network ...


7

The first one is a test if a child has understood conservation of matter. It is an example of a conservation task. These belong to the tests used in the framework of Piaget to test what stage of development a child is in. Here is a video demonstration of the cookie task. Here is another question on this site pertaining to a different conservation task. The ...


6

The two concepts are analogous and mutually illustrative, but empirically refer to different levels of analysis: behavioral and neural. Habituation Habituation is a form of non-associative learning, specifically, learning that a stimulus is behaviorally unimportant. If I loudly and repeatedly bang on a metal pot immediately behind your head, you will ...


6

Déformation professionnelle is probably the closest match: Déformation professionnelle is a French phrase, meaning a tendency to look at things from the point of view of one's own profession rather than from a broader perspective. It is often translated as "professional deformation" or "job conditioning". The implication is that professional training, ...


6

They are ordered based on when they were discovered/named (as pointed about by Ana's comment). Alpha and beta waves were among the first signals observed in EEG data. From Wikipedia: Alpha waves were discovered by German neurologist Hans Berger, most famous for his invention of the EEG. Alpha waves were among the first waves documented by Berger, along ...


5

Consider persecutory delusion. They are compulsive in that they manifest as extreme, irrational suspicions with little or no basis in reality. The irrational components often involve absurdly elaborate conspiracy theories, so this is probably close enough to "the entire world", but it often goes much further than "looking down" into more severe forms of ...


5

In The Personality Puzzle (2012), David Funder describes a taxonomy of four different kinds of data that I've always found useful. The Personality Puzzle is a textbook in personality psychology, so its take on psychology is somewhat more as a social than biological science (though biology has its place too). Briefly, here are the four kinds of data as ...


5

You never know what's gonna offend someone...That being said, "hallucinations in people with schizophrenia" does seem the safer option, but "schizophrenics" (not capitalized) is used plenty often. Here's an interesting Google result: Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA) is a self-help group for persons who have schizophrenia or a schizophrenia-related illness. ...


4

It's the other way around: Psychology is a discipline within Cognitive Science, which includes Artificial Intelligence, Neuroscience, and possibly Philosophy of Mind. Research work in Psychology presumably makes you a Cognitive Scientist.


4

Really, there's two kinds of data in cognitive science, information (the data used by the cognitive systems we're interested in), and experimental data (and similar, such as correlational data), which we collect and analyse to try and better understand cognition. It sounds like your question is about information, so I'll focus on that, but please correct me ...


4

If what you are seeking is how to present material so that cognitive overload does not occur, you are in the realm of learning theory.[1] Cognitive load theory and schema (learning) theory go hand in hand in. Schemas are frameworks of information (like a steel-framed skyscraper in your mind); they start as very basic ("This is a cell") and become more ...


4

Logical semantics is one of the three sections of logical semiotics (in addition to syntax and pragmatics) dealing with the relations between signs (in particular the expressions) and reality, to which they refer. In addition to basic semantic functions, we can include, e.g. semantic connotation, determination and denotation, where the basic terms of ...


3

There are many who will tell you authoritatively that a disease is acquired (e.g. infection, cancer, etc.) whereas disorder is something curable or genetic. These are imprecise and untrue. Basically a disturbance in normal functioning can be either a disorder or a disease, regardless of it's curability or method of acquisition. From your link, the second ...


3

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...


3

FWIW, I've tried to find existing research on this and come up with next-to-nothing. Hypothetically speaking, I doubt it would be constructive to adopt new psychological jargon that even social and personality psychologists (like myself) have never heard of, given how little research there appears to be on this. The closest match I found was the following ...


2

It's often referred to as "doll therapy" or "play therapy" and applies to adults as much as it does to children. For example, this new product, the "Inner Critic Doll" enables adults to hold a physical manifestation of their inner critic and start a dialogue with it. It has a zipper mouth which can be zipped shut to physically silence this inner voice. The ...


2

Grabner-Kräuter et al (2003) suggest that Lack of trust is one of the most frequently cited reasons for consumers not purchasing from Internet vendors. References Grabner-Kräuter, S., & Kaluscha, E. A. (2003). Empirical research in on-line trust: a review and critical assessment. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58(6), 783-812. ...


2

It seems to me that it'd be a type of a tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon caused by bilingualism. If you don't use German regularly, it might be attributed to language attrition, but this seems unlikely if you're still being exposed to German more than English. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tip-of-the-tongue_phenomenon#Effects_of_bilingualism


2

I think the most common verbage would be Poseur Though often used in subcultural contexts, 'posuer / poser' means someone who affects an attitude or position — which is very much the case when someone comes in from an external field and acts with the authority of a resident expert. Still, I stand by my position that this question is best served at ...


2

People base their perceptions of performance, in part, on their preconceived notions about their skills. Because these notions often do not correlate with objective performance, they can lead people to make judgments about their performance that have little to do with actual accomplishment. This is an example of the Dunnig-Kruger effect[1] Simply ...


2

Philosopher Walter Kaufmann calls this fear "decidophobia", but I have never read and cannot find any psychological publications using that term. If you think about the phenomenon, it becomes apparent that anyone can clearly observe when a person hesitates to decide, but even that person herself could probably not clearly identify all the emotions that ...


2

You might be referring to mimicry or linguistic mimicry. Mimicry is more broad than just vocabulary and expressions, but the general principle of imitating what others in a social group are doing applies.


2

Arnon's answer is right, but I thought it might help to explain why. Cognitive Science is the study of minds. This can include human minds, other animal minds, and artificial minds. The method could be to study how agents with minds behave in experiments (psychology), to study the physiological properties of biological minds (neuroscience), to create and ...


2

There is some evidence that thought disorder (also called loose association) arises, at least partially, from increased spreading activation; schizophrenics, for example, often show a greater increase in activation to indirectly related words compared to unrelated words, than do non-thought disordered controls. This is primarily a cognitive mechanism, not a ...


2

It is alexithymi aif you're looking for a diagnostic term. And it is not a case of "you either have it or you don't" - Alexithymia is a continuum. There even exists a scale, which is a professional scale so to get it you need to pay for it and be a researcher, but tere you have it. It's called Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Look it up.


2

Apologies in advance for the long answer. I tried to narrow down the scope by focusing on only a single construct, and only a single aspect of validity, and it still turned out like an essay... Let's take intelligence research as an example. This work started with an intelligence concept – a fairly vague and ambiguous idea about a personality trait that ...


2

What is Anxiety? Give this a read. I like this explanation of anxiety best, however: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. What is Stress? Give this a read also. For an explanation of stress as it pertains to your question, I like this best: A state of mental or ...


2

It is hard to delineate emotion completely from thoughts or sensations, because emotion can contain both. If you're in a certain emotional state, that means you're reading your bodily state via a series of sensations (so called interoception, as opposed to sensations originating from the world around you). You can also think about the fact that you're ...



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