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9

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...


8

It's the other way around: Psychology is a discipline within Cognitive Science, which includes Artificial Intelligence, Neuroscience, and possibly Philosophy of Mind. Research work in Psychology presumably makes you a Cognitive Scientist.


7

I'm not sure about children recalling memories of their ancestors, but there is such a thing as Genetic Memory. In one study mice who were trained to fear a specific smell passed on their trained aversion to their descendant. Who were then extremely sensitive to, and fearful of the same smell, even though they had never encountered it, nor been trained to ...


7

Apologies in advance for the long answer. I tried to narrow down the scope by focusing on only a single construct, and only a single aspect of validity, and it still turned out like an essay... Let's take intelligence research as an example. This work started with an intelligence concept – a fairly vague and ambiguous idea about a personality trait that ...


7

They are ordered based on when they were discovered/named (as pointed about by Ana's comment). Alpha and beta waves were among the first signals observed in EEG data. From Wikipedia: Alpha waves were discovered by German neurologist Hans Berger, most famous for his invention of the EEG. Alpha waves were among the first waves documented by Berger, along ...


7

The cognitive sciences are largely an element of the behavioral sciences. The subject matter of the behavioral sciences is animal or human behavior. It is an interdisciplinary endeavor that involves a diverse set of fields such as psychology, ethology, behavioral genetics, criminology, etc. The cognitive sciences study how the mind determines behavior via ...


7

No, intuition is not related to ESP in modern cognitive science. A modern view on intuitive thinking While ESP certainly retains its pseudoscience status (e.g., Rouder and Morey, 2011), intuition and intuitive thinking has been used in the psychological literature in evolving ways over the years. Outside the heydays of Skinnerian radical behaviorism, the ...


6

As per the comments to the question, human research observing this distinction does exist. CHCH possibly alludes to an article by Gläscher, Daw, Dayan and O'Doherty (2010) which concisely defines the difference between model-free learning and model-based learning: Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations (“states”) and ...


6

The two concepts are analogous and mutually illustrative, but empirically refer to different levels of analysis: behavioral and neural. Habituation Habituation is a form of non-associative learning, specifically, learning that a stimulus is behaviorally unimportant. If I loudly and repeatedly bang on a metal pot immediately behind your head, you will ...


5

Short answer: Behaviorism treats the human brain/mind like a black box whose internal processes cannot be known. As such, behaviorists claim that it only makes sense to study the association between a given stimulus and the behavioral output it produces. Cognitivists, on the other hand, examine internal mental processes (attention, executive control, ...


5

In The Personality Puzzle (2012), David Funder describes a taxonomy of four different kinds of data that I've always found useful. The Personality Puzzle is a textbook in personality psychology, so its take on psychology is somewhat more as a social than biological science (though biology has its place too). Briefly, here are the four kinds of data as ...


5

Arnon's answer is right, but I thought it might help to explain why. Cognitive Science is the study of minds. This can include human minds, other animal minds, and artificial minds. The method could be to study how agents with minds behave in experiments (psychology), to study the physiological properties of biological minds (neuroscience), to create and ...


5

It seems to depend on the reason for denying their illness... Egosyntonic: ... a term referring to behaviors, values, feelings that are in harmony with or acceptable to the needs and goals of the ego, or consistent with one's ideal self-image. ... Many personality disorders are considered to be egosyntonic ... Anorexia ... is also considered ...


5

There is no agreed-upon definition of affective cueing because it's not a proper name. If you google for "affective cueing" you only find a handful of hits and in them the term is used differently, mostly to indicate that some cue (a stimulus that carries information) is of positive versus negative valence. In contrast, affective priming refers to a ...


5

Interesting question! Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states, motivations, etc. to others and recognize that others have separate intentions, states, and motivations from his or her own. The specific phenomenon that you are describing may stem from this concept called naive realism, or the idea that we see the world as it truly is, and ...


4

The question is related to a large area of research showing that people are egocentrically biased when they think about the thoughts and feelings of others. The classic study is Ross, Green and House's (1977) paper on the false consensus effect, according to which people overestimate the extent to which their own beliefs, opinions, behavioral choices, and ...


4

One search term that might be useful is temporal discounting. Here's a relevant Psychlopedia article, and a relatively recent paper that may have some useful references for navigating the literature.


4

Really, there's two kinds of data in cognitive science, information (the data used by the cognitive systems we're interested in), and experimental data (and similar, such as correlational data), which we collect and analyse to try and better understand cognition. It sounds like your question is about information, so I'll focus on that, but please correct me ...


4

These should get you started, relating to spontaneous behaviour of humans in society, in contrast to normality behaviour: Spontaneous Alternation Behavior by W.N. Dember, C.L. Richman How does complex behavior spontaneously emerge in the brain? - Lisa Zyga Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity - R. Russo, H. J. Herrmann ...


3

I agree with Arnon that cognitive science is, by most people's definition, multi-disciplinary. And one of those disciplines included is psychology. However, if you were to attend a cognitive science conference or read a cognitive science journal, you would see that it mostly includes areas of psychology that broadly relate to cognition. There are many ...


3

MariaAnt provided a relevant definition of complex problem solving in the answer to the question, "Research operationalizing so-called strategic thinking?" based on Frensch and Funke (1995). [Complex problem solving] occurs to overcome barriers between a given state and a desired goal state by means of behavioral and/or cognitive, multistep activities. ...


3

The English Analytical Psychologist H. G. Baynes first described the provisional life in a chapter of his book "Analytical Psychology and the English Mind". For a good comprehensive description see http://jungiancenter.org/essay/jung-provisional-life


3

It's an example of the confirmation bias: Confirmation bias (...) is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses. Research has shown that people have a strong tendency to engage in a positive test strategy when investigating a hypothesis (see e.g., Klayman & Ha, 1978). That ...


3

The definition of aggression and violence is a thorny issue, and there is considerable disagreement about the terms between disciplines, but also within disciplines. Sometimes authors use the terms interchangeably. In psychology, the term aggression is often used as the broader term that encompasses all forms of harmful behavior. For example, according to ...


2

Philosopher Walter Kaufmann calls this fear "decidophobia", but I have never read and cannot find any psychological publications using that term. If you think about the phenomenon, it becomes apparent that anyone can clearly observe when a person hesitates to decide, but even that person herself could probably not clearly identify all the emotions that ...


2

You might be referring to mimicry or linguistic mimicry. Mimicry is more broad than just vocabulary and expressions, but the general principle of imitating what others in a social group are doing applies.


2

The distinction stems from research on the "Focus Theory of Normative Conduct" (e.g., Cialdini et al. 1990) Injunctive norms refer to the perception of what ought to be, or as you state, perceptions of what is approved or disapproved by others. Example: If you think that other people would consider tax fraud as something that is morally wrong, you would ...


2

There is some evidence that thought disorder (also called loose association) arises, at least partially, from increased spreading activation; schizophrenics, for example, often show a greater increase in activation to indirectly related words compared to unrelated words, than do non-thought disordered controls. This is primarily a cognitive mechanism, not a ...



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