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As per the comments to the question, human research observing this distinction does exist. CHCH possibly alludes to an article by Gläscher, Daw, Dayan and O'Doherty (2010) which concisely defines the difference between model-free learning and model-based learning: Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations (“states”) and ...


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There is a large body of research on complex problem solving that is highly relevant to your question. The starting point of this research was a critique of classic reasoning and problem solving research which seemed to focus on very small problems (such as the Tower of Hanoi), which may not capture the complexity of many real world problems that people ...


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The Enneagram model of personality (Riso and Hudson, 1999) has limited and mixed scientific evidence supporting it. One of the few studies reporting on the model's validity (Newgent et al., 2004) concluded the following in their abstract. Results of 287 participants were analyzed. Alpha suggests an adequate degree of internal consistency. Evidence ...


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This question seems to arise out of a slight terminological confusion. Empirical studies of human decision-making in particular are not covered by decision theory. Decision theory is the mathematical study of strategies for optimal decision-making between options involving different risks or expectations of gain or loss depending on the outcome. These ...



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