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In The Personality Puzzle (2012), David Funder describes a taxonomy of four different kinds of data that I've always found useful. The Personality Puzzle is a textbook in personality psychology, so its take on psychology is somewhat more as a social than biological science (though biology has its place too). Briefly, here are the four kinds of data as ...


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Really, there's two kinds of data in cognitive science, information (the data used by the cognitive systems we're interested in), and experimental data (and similar, such as correlational data), which we collect and analyse to try and better understand cognition. It sounds like your question is about information, so I'll focus on that, but please correct me ...


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I don't want to address the issue of defining mental disorders in general here, because just about any malfunctioning system in the brain can be considered a disorder. However, some disorders affect the set of processes in the brain which ultimately determine whether or not someone takes an action (the neural basis of volition, or "free will", if you ...


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I Upvoted @StrangeLoop's excellent answer. I did want to point out that the law is applied unevenly across the United States. Are people ever exempted from prosecution for being a$$holes? Absolutely. The California Highway Patrolman who beat the homeless woman trying to cross the highway was supported by his commander (I haven't heard the latest; I know ...


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In terms of thoughts vs emotions, from a clinical psychology perspective, I conceptualize an emotion as a single word or an image (e.g. anger or "seeing red") while I conceptualize thoughts as sentences. So, if I ask a client what he was thinking, and he says "I was angry," I would label that an emotion and encourage them to expand on the thought ("I thought ...



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