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11

Maybe we should ask a vietnam vet if he feels less stress in nature than inside a building. I think the reason we feel tense inside is because we've been conditioned to expect stressful situations to happen while inside, so we're on guard for it (ie tense). Nothing bad has ever happened to us while sitting on a park bench listening to the birds chirp. ...


8

In this article, the authors note that natural sounds promote faster stress recovery than artificial sounds. One of the main reasons is because the natural sounds are more familiar than the artificial sounds. According to Eleanor Ratcliffe, natural sounds (such as bird song) may evoke memories of different seasons. This in turn, produces positive affect. ...


6

The research literature on stress in general and burnout in particular would be relevant. The stress literature is massive and there are studies that have a particular focus on students. For example Jacobs and Dodd did a study on college student burnout: Measures of social support (Multidimen- sional Scale of Perceived Social Support), personality ...


6

This is only one possible pathway. There are many potential ones. Further the fact that this is possible does not mean that it is the case always. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. For example, a meta-analysis by Dickerson et al. (2004) demonstrated that an acute laboratory based stressor reliably increased cortisol levels, ...


6

A little stress is good, as it leads to greater psychological arousal, but lots of stress will decrease performance. This is known as the Yerkes–Dodson law, from the famous experiment by Yerkes and Dodson (1908) which related strength of motivational electric shocks to performance; performance increased up to a point and then plummeted. One more comment ...


5

There is a large and diverse literature on this topic which paints a complex picture of the relationship between trauma and empathy. Some studies have found significant trauma symptoms to be related to less empathy. A study of Israeli children who had experienced the trauma of Arab missile attacks found that 66% of children with very negative attitudes ...


5

I'm surprised nobody brought this up yet. Maybe that fact is a sign of you all having gotten used to it: Artificial environments usually are filled with noise. You only notice how much noise there is, when you take a hike in the wilderness, and there are no more far away car sounds, no radios and televisions, no human multitude talking, no computer fans – ...


5

Decision-making or decision theory is its own subdiscipline under cognitive science (also often studied by statisticians, philosophers, economists, and faculty in business schools). Within this discipline, understanding how stress affects your behavior is very important and not understudied area. For a recent survey with a neurobiological focus, see: ...


4

There is little evidence that stress affects structural MRI (reduction in the volume of the hippocampus). The review article (Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition Lupien et al., 2009) synthesizes the current knowledge in the field. Another article might be of interest (MRI measurement of hippocampal volume in ...


4

Yup; basically, it works. Varvogli and Darviri (2011) review research on diaphragmatic breathing, reporting: Deep breathing has been successfully used to decrease the fatigue associated with haemopoietic stem cell transplantation patients 55, to reduce the anxiety and asthma signs/symptoms of children with asthma 56, in the management of acute stressful ...


3

Typically, questionnaires where all items are on the same response scale are coded differently to composite variables where you have variables on different metrics (e.g., a set of ability tests). Sums and means: For questionnaires like yours, you would commonly just take the mean or the sum of items that belong to a given subscale (note that you may need to ...


3

Personality is generally theorised to be a stable individual difference variable. Research has shown it to be highly stable over time. Thus, from a theoretical perspective it typically has a primacy in causal models. Stress can be an ambiguous construct. It can refer to the objective existence of stressful stimuli or the way that individuals perceive ...


3

It really depends on the timing of the stressful event, as well as anticipation. From an evolutionary standpoint, "stress" developed for a reason in the context of heightened arousal, attention, preparation for action, etc. Say you encounter a lion in your backyard: Not only will your sympathetic nervous system be on full speed, but several cortices are also ...


2

You've actually stated 2 questions in one. The second one is answered by Jeromy, the burnout or burnout-like states are the consequence of any overworking. I would also add the health problems, but those are not particularly on topic. When it comes to the reasons, the learning can become the addiction, as most of the things you do. It can become obsession. ...


2

In addition to the ressources that @Damien has provided I would like to give you a very brief "tutorial": Factor scores for a subject are defined as the sum of the scores of that subject on the items that belong to a factor, multiplied by their respective factor loadings. It doesn't really matter if you go with the standardized or with the unstandardized ...


2

What is Anxiety? Give this a read. I like this explanation of anxiety best, however: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. What is Stress? Give this a read also. For an explanation of stress as it pertains to your question, I like this best: A state of mental or ...


2

There are many different uses for the word "stress". Let's not confuse them. Self-destructive behavior is usually related to the stress response. Here, I believe you mean psychological stress. Stress response has a different meaning. Self-destructive behaviour may be used to cope with psychological stress. stress usually is also a source of ...


1

Everyone normally experiences anxiety. Worrying is a form of anxiety, as is nervousness. People have normal anxieties about all kinds of things: a coming review or exam, an illness or our health, our weight, our food, social gatherings with persons not well known, public speaking, financial uncertainties, the way we are disciplining our children, whether our ...


1

The only evolutionary backed self destructive behavior I can think of is that which in certain situations the act of sacrificing one's self will aid the passing of one's genes through the next of kin. MAYBE one can come up with a scenario where say, two siblings encounter a lion, one then acts as a sacrifice so that the other can survive. That's a long shot ...


1

Nick's answer is very thorough. I would add that the physiological symptoms of high-stress (muscle tightening, accelerated heartbeat, shallow quick breath) can be reversed by controlling breath voluntarily. So, when you change these physical conditions, emotional state often follows.



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