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"Are psychiatric disorders merely statistical deviations?" No. Psychiatric disorders are mostly defined by the client's subjective challenges in everyday situations. When a client does not report to have any challenges in everyday situations, and reports to not feel that a condition is an issue, then no disorder will be diagnosed. If a client reports to ...

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The index of sensitivity $d'$ is typically defined in terms of two equal variance normally distributed random variables with means $\mu_s$ and $\mu_n$ and standard deviation $\sigma$: $$d'=\frac{\mu_s-\mu_n}{\sigma}$$ In behavioural experiments, the probability that the subjects responded correctly (either saying 'yes' when the signal was present or saying ...

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To calculate $d'$, you need to know two things: the hit rate and the false alarm rate. The hit rate is the proportion of trials where the stimulus was present and the subject responded that the stimulus was present. The false alarm rate is the proportion of trials where the stimulus was not present, and the subject responded that the stimulus was present. ...

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Obtaining the quartiles: Typically you obtain quartiles from the data. Thus, you would have sample data (either your dataset or another dataset), and you can use software to give you .25 and .75 percentiles (or alternatively, you can get such values fairly straightforwardly by rank ordering the data). Of course, you might be referring to a slightly ...

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