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The distinction stems from research on the "Focus Theory of Normative Conduct" (e.g., Cialdini et al. 1990) Injunctive norms refer to the perception of what ought to be, or as you state, perceptions of what is approved or disapproved by others. For example, if you think that other people would consider tax fraud as something that is morally wrong you would ...


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You can use Ibex, if you want to run it online: http://spellout.net/ibexfarm/ But in any case you should be able to upload the files in Linger, you'll need to do it centered since Linger doesn't support right-to-left languages. And you should check the encoding of the files. It should be ISO 8859-15 and not UTF-8.


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I spent over 5 weeks hanging out with homeless people in Kalamazoo, MI by a nearby homeless shelter. I engaged with them nearly every minute of free time I had after work and on weekends. What I observed regarding food was actually an abundance. When someone releases a study indicating that someone doesn't get "enough" to eat, that is extremely subjective. I ...


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Teens who get involved in graffiti 'tagging' may be showing early symptoms of a personality disorder, an Australian psychiatrist says. He says the study, presented at an international child and adolescent mental health conference in Melbourne this week, found that teens who graffiti "are significantly different to those who do not graffiti". ...


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There's a program called Paradigm that has built-in support for Self-Paced Reading, it also handles Arabic characters. You'll just type in your sentences and then use back-slashes to specify each segment. For example: The actress\shot\the officer\who\was standing\on the balcony Paradigm will log a timestamp for the onset of each segment (in Excel) so it's ...


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This is a cultural/situational phenomenon. I know that in my parents' generation (which grew up with poverty), it is common courtesy to never take the last piece of cake/whatever. The host always has to make sure there's plenty, because 1 piece left means that people are still hungry. Nowadays most people (in my culture and generation) are not so hesitant. ...


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I don't know of a single term for it, but what you're describing is, in essence, causal inference driven by "statistics", "co-variation", "co-occurrence", or "contiguity" (the terms are largely interchangeable). If you're interested, there's a quite in-depth discussion review of theories of different theories of causal inference, including statistical ...


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Funnily enough, there was a Science article published on this (see here). In their sample of university students, Mehl et al. had participants wear a specialized device that recorded audio samples from daily life (The EAR). They report that (emphasis mine): The data suggest that women spoke on average 16,215 (SD = 7301) words and men 15,669 (SD = 8633) ...


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What is interesting about this phenomenon is that it runs counter to the scarcity principle. Countless research has shown that the more scarce a commodity is, the more desirable it becomes. This is often capitalized on in marketing ("limited edition" and so on). Thus, the last donut should actually be even more attractive than one of many donuts. So ...


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That' a very difficult question because research on negotiations is so varied and multidisciplinary. There is prescriptive research stemming from a decision analysis approach and game theory, descriptive research from behavioral economics, and more process-oriented, social-cognitive research. As an excellent starting point into psychological research on ...


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Distinguish and separate envy and jealousy. Jealousy is one of many facets of fear within the community whilst envy is fear within self. Yet both stem from inner insecurities and are therefore difficult to separate in a logical sense. I suppose one can break it like this: Jealousy usually involves only one other person whilst envy may involve a number of ...


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More recent research suggests that when people talk about envy, they may actually refer to two different kinds of emotions. One is the classic "evil" form of envy and the other is a benign kind of envy, which is also painful but not hostile. Quoting the abstract from Van de Ven et al. (2009): Envy is the painful emotion caused by the good fortune of ...


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IMO, for the following reasons: Not all questions are answered by Google. Most of the questions posted in online forums get opinionated facts as answers. Even if Google can lead you to these answers, posting it in a forum gives you a variety of answers from fairly like-minded people. 2.You get to know the standard and interestingness of the question you ...


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If I have understood things right, I think it is some form of 'Cognitive dissonance' According to wikipedia,"cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or ...


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One way to understand why people think this way is to replace the word "scientist" with "industry scientist". I think most of us would not trust a scientific study about smoking funded by the Tobocco Institute, or study on global warming funded by Exxon. The view, as I understand it, of many of the anti-vaxxers is that the studies done showing vaccines are ...


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Conceptualization in a research methods context basically means generating a precise definition. You and I might have different ideas of what it means to be feminine, which would make it difficult to measure. In order to conduct research that measures femininity, a precise definition is needed so that everyone has a common understanding of what exactly it is ...


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I have skimmed this paper about solitary confinement and the consequences seem disastrous "The paradigmatic psychiatric disturbance was an agitated confusional state which, in more severe cases, had the characteristics of a florid delirium, characterized by severe confusional, paranoid, and hallucinatory features, and also by intense agitation and random, ...


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Castro, Jones, and Mirsalimi (2004) examine the relation between parentification and impostor syndrome, but they also give a good overview of other literature on the subject. They enumerate a number of traits (low global self-esteem, introversion, neuroticism, perfectionism, and attributing success to external factors) and psychological problems (anxiety, ...


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I long pondered the answer to this question myself. The short answer is: Cognitive Dissonance* Long answer: Research approaches to answering such a question are limited by ethical concerns, so most data on abusive relationships comes from self-reports, and most studies are conducted after the fact, though a few studies do examine self-reports during such ...


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A lot of sources might be of use here, but one thing in your question is not clear to me - when you write "envy", do you mean a kind of resentment towards someone with material possessions that you don't have, or a jealousy in a romantic context? Everything that I would write is about the first meaning, and I have no idea about anything connected with the ...



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