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16

I will go about this by answering two questions. First, what is Popper's general approach when attempting to distinguish science from pseudo-science? Second, what specifically did he dislike about Freudian psychoanalysis? (Historically, Popper actually developed his general theory in response to his particular dislike of contemporary marxism and Adlerian and ...


12

David Dunning and Justin Kruger have observed that, related to skill competency, individuals which are incompetent in a certain skill can exhibit a cognitive bias, called the Dunning-Kruger effect, which leads them to: fail to recognize their own lack of skill fail to recognize genuine skill in others fail to recognize the extremity of their inadequacy ...


6

I would add that there's a series of recent studies of what the authors called the 'equality bias'. I don't think they provide a mechanism, jut point to a rather suboptimal way of social decision making. I copy here their own summary (better description than any I could give): "When making decisions together, we tend to give everyone an equal chance to ...


5

The word "Oikophobia" has several different definitions. In psychology, it usually means an aversion to home surroundings, or to objects in the home. However, the British philosopher Roger Scruton coined a new meaning, which is exactly what you are looking for: The disposition, in any conflict, to side with 'them' against 'us', and the felt need to ...


5

I don't think the idea of a male/female brain is well established in the neurosciences. If you read a book like Delusions of Gender you'll get a critical perspective on the status of sex differences in the brain. At some level, sex differences in behaviour must be mediated through the brain. But there are major debates about the degree to which such ...


5

Self-selection bias is probably the best domain specific term. Generally, this is called assortativity, as in assortative mating.


5

You are correct in that these terms are very close in definition, but terminology is not just about identifying a concept. Terminology is also about identifying the perspective from which you will look at the concept and the community to which you, as the researcher, belong. Here, free-riding and social loafing have very different histories. Social loafing ...


5

The relevant section 8.03 in the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct does not employ a proper term. In the literature, »deception/deceptive study/experiment/method(s)« are sometimes used, however not in the sense of a technical term – most often the matter is paraphrased as in »studies that use deception«. The Milgram experiment(s) ...


5

Short answer Hypothesis (1) Background The question is quite broad, as exemplified by the statement: They may be insecure about their looks, their (odd) behavior, or may question whether they belong to a group (of friends, colleagues and what not). Personally and anecdotally, I think that a healthy self-doubt forms the core of self-reflection and allows a ...


4

Can asking a leading question in a poll change the opinion of the respondent? Yes, apparantly everyone is susceptible to leading questions. Conside rable attention has been devoted to suggestive questions and its effects. Experimental research by Elizabeth F. Loftus, an American psychologist and an expert on human memory, has established that ...


4

I think Daniel Kahneman calls this the Availability heuristic, a cognitive bias explaining the tendency to weigh more recent (more available) information as more pertinent when making beliefs, reasoning or drawing causal relations.


4

Social Order and Hierarchy. As Humans our brains are designed to see where we fit in the social order. If someones success is perceived as a threat, it can lead to anxiety and fear from the person whom is resentful and jealous. While in the modern world there is no need for this fear, our ancestors had to compete within their tribe(s) for resources,status,...


4

Cognitive dissonance and decision-making are not really related. Cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, performs an action that is contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas, or values, or is confronted by new information ...


4

Not really, that would be too easy! Because there are several factors which can influence the emotion from the color. I have several in mind: One of them is cultural background, as norms and habits, and thus cultural value, meaning, may change between people for a same color (interindividual differences). Another one is context, as color preference may be ...


4

These terms are defined by the underlying theory of Intelligence. For example: Social Intelligence (SI) comes from a definition by Edward Thorndike in 1920. Emotional Intelligence (EI) (or EQ - Q=Quota) first appeared in a 1964 paper by Michael Beldoch, later by Goleman. Then there is Interpersonal & Intrapersonal Intelligences from Howard Gardner's ...


3

Neuroticism is more strongly associated with emotional stressors in the form of depression and anxiety than is extraversion. That being said, extraversion is negatively correlated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and self-reported lifetime mental disorder, even after adjusting for gender, age, and education. It appears that depression is moderately ...


3

Since this (excellent) question has been around for a while without any answer, I thought I'd give my two cents, like the help centre suggests. Other people may be able to expand on this and find appropriate sources, research, etc. I think we do this as a gesture of respect to the other person. We may fear that if we don't acknowledge them at all, it will ...


3

Digital Marketing often produces 'content' for users to consume. That content is ment to catch and keep the attention of the user, in an attempt to make the user trust and follow the sender (usually a website or blog). When the user shows engagement like clicking the right buttons, the user will somehow be tempted with some kind of offer (a newsletter, a ...


3

While eye contact is certainly important in social interaction I think you should beware pseudoscientific dating advice based on manufacturing "attraction" between men and women. Since this site is about science, let me point to a couple of areas of empirical research looking at eye contact. First, there are quite a few experimental papers showing that (...


3

As a percentage of their endeavours, do those with a tendency to use bullying focus more or less on sociopaths as a per capita of their targets? Thanks for this interesting question. Based on my research the short answer appears to be that there is no clear evidence either way. The longer answer is that this is probably too complicated a question to ...


3

From Personal Experience, teachers will demand more from their child if their child is in that class for a couple of reasons: To show the rest of the class that there is no favoritism towards the child, as well as to ensure that the child performs exceptionally in the class. Whether they achieve better/worse results is dependent on the level that this "...


3

This should perhaps be a comment, but I don't have the reputation. According to the Wikipedia's page on Cognitive Dissonance : In psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, performs an action that is contradictory to one ...


3

Confirmation bias: Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias, is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities. A feature of this bias is belief perseverance: ... when ...


3

According to the empathy-altruism hypothesis, in some circumstances, people help because they genuinely care about the welfare of the other person and not because of any other personal goal i.e. avoid distress, social norm, Self-affirmation etc. The empathy-altruism hypothesis basically states that psychological altruism does exist and is evoked by the ...



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