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14

Perhaps you're referring to Naomi Eisenberger's work on the neural basis of social pain. Her seminal paper found that the neural correlates of distress from social rejection overlapped with those of physical pain, i.e., dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. She's recently published a literature review on social pain in the brain ...


14

I will go about this by answering two questions. First, what is Popper's general approach when attempting to distinguish science from pseudo-science? Second, what specifically did he dislike about Freudian psychoanalysis? (Historically, Popper actually developed his general theory in response to his particular dislike of contemporary marxism and Adlerian and ...


12

David Dunning and Justin Kruger have observed that, related to skill competency, individuals which are incompetent in a certain skill can exhibit a cognitive bias, called the Dunning-Kruger effect, which leads them to: fail to recognize their own lack of skill fail to recognize genuine skill in others fail to recognize the extremity of their inadequacy ...


8

The two main folks in crying research (of whom I'm aware) are Ad Vingerhoets and Jonathan Rottenberg. They've (together and separately) published reviews of adult crying and crying across the lifespan, as well as empirical articles. The general impression they give is that we know very little about the neuropsychobiology of crying, given that crying has ...


6

There is another common expression: "You never get a second chance to make a first impression." The stability of first impressions is empirically sound: Once formed, first impressions tend to be stable. A review of the literature on the accuracy and impact of first impressions on rater-based assessments found that raters' first impressions are ...


6

I would add that there's a series of recent studies of what the authors called the 'equality bias'. I don't think they provide a mechanism, jut point to a rather suboptimal way of social decision making. I copy here their own summary (better description than any I could give): "When making decisions together, we tend to give everyone an equal chance to ...


5

The word "Oikophobia" has several different definitions. In psychology, it usually means an aversion to home surroundings, or to objects in the home. However, the British philosopher Roger Scruton coined a new meaning, which is exactly what you are looking for: The disposition, in any conflict, to side with 'them' against 'us', and the felt need to ...


5

I don't think the idea of a male/female brain is well established in the neurosciences. If you read a book like Delusions of Gender you'll get a critical perspective on the status of sex differences in the brain. At some level, sex differences in behaviour must be mediated through the brain. But there are major debates about the degree to which such ...


4

What you describe has some similarities with the primacy effect (but I take Arnon's point that the phrase as you describe seems to relate specifically to first impressions in person perception). There is a lot of memory research which relates the order of presentation of a set of stimuli to the degree of recall. The primacy effect is the name given for the ...


4

I think Daniel Kahneman calls this the Availability heuristic, a cognitive bias explaining the tendency to weigh more recent (more available) information as more pertinent when making beliefs, reasoning or drawing causal relations.


4

Can asking a leading question in a poll change the opinion of the respondent? Yes, apparantly everyone is susceptible to leading questions. Conside rable attention has been devoted to suggestive questions and its effects. Experimental research by Elizabeth F. Loftus, an American psychologist and an expert on human memory, has established that ...


4

Social Order and Hierarchy. As Humans our brains are designed to see where we fit in the social order. If someones success is perceived as a threat, it can lead to anxiety and fear from the person whom is resentful and jealous. While in the modern world there is no need for this fear, our ancestors had to compete within their tribe(s) for ...


4

Cognitive dissonance and decision-making are not really related. Cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, performs an action that is contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas, or values, or is confronted by new information ...


4

Not really, that would be too easy! Because there are several factors which can influence the emotion from the color. I have several in mind: One of them is cultural background, as norms and habits, and thus cultural value, meaning, may change between people for a same color (interindividual differences). Another one is context, as color preference may be ...


3

In addition to @mrt's great answer. I feel that the following excerpt from the 'crying' section from the "The Newborn Infant" chapter in my Developmental Psychology classes' textbook would shed light on your question. This is quoted directly from "How Children Develop, Third Edition" by Robert Siegler, Judy DeLoache and Nancy Eisenberg": How do you feel ...


3

Check out Networks, Crowds, and Markets (David Easley and Jon Kleinberg, 2010), esp. chapters 16 and 19.


3

Neuroticism is more strongly associated with emotional stressors in the form of depression and anxiety than is extraversion. That being said, extraversion is negatively correlated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and self-reported lifetime mental disorder, even after adjusting for gender, age, and education. It appears that depression is moderately ...


3

As a percentage of their endeavours, do those with a tendency to use bullying focus more or less on sociopaths as a per capita of their targets? Thanks for this interesting question. Based on my research the short answer appears to be that there is no clear evidence either way. The longer answer is that this is probably too complicated a question to ...


3

From Personal Experience, teachers will demand more from their child if their child is in that class for a couple of reasons: To show the rest of the class that there is no favoritism towards the child, as well as to ensure that the child performs exceptionally in the class. Whether they achieve better/worse results is dependent on the level that this ...


3

This should perhaps be a comment, but I don't have the reputation. According to the Wikipedia's page on Cognitive Dissonance : In psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, performs an action that is contradictory to one ...


3

Confirmation bias: Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias, is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses, while giving disproportionately less consideration to alternative possibilities. A feature of this bias is belief perseverance: ... when ...


3

According to the empathy-altruism hypothesis, in some circumstances, people help because they genuinely care about the welfare of the other person and not because of any other personal goal i.e. avoid distress, social norm, Self-affirmation etc. The empathy-altruism hypothesis basically states that psychological altruism does exist and is evoked by the ...


3

Self-selection bias is probably the best domain specific term. Generally, this is called assortativity, as in assortative mating.


3

What you describe is known as Selective Exposure to Information. Selective exposure is a theory within the practice of psychology, often used in media and communication research, that historically refers to individuals’ tendency to favor information which reinforces their pre-existing views while avoiding contradictory information. Below find ...



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