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10

Funnily enough, there was a Science article published on this (see here). In their sample of university students, Mehl et al. had participants wear a specialized device that recorded audio samples from daily life (The EAR). They report that (emphasis mine): The data suggest that women spoke on average 16,215 (SD = 7301) words and men 15,669 (SD = 8633) ...


8

What you describe is an illusion. (a) The human field of view is almost 180° when staring straight ahead and 270° with eyeball rotation (looking to the side without turning your head). If you look at someone from slightly behind and to the side, they will appear to be gazing forward, and you may feel unnoticed, but in fact you are within their field of ...


8

Rather than discuss limits of the human field of view, or extrasensory perception (I don't know anything about the first, and the second is a myth), I think we can look at this as a simple case of illusory correlation (wikipedia), which is both a psychological phenomenon, and something psychologists need to overcome to investigate other phenomena. In a ...


8

It's a matter of degree. First of all, "shyness" is not a psychological or psychiatric term, but an everyday English word denoting a commonly observable personality characteristic on a par with courage, cheerfulness, or honesty. The meaning of "shyness" is not exactly defined, and people may use the word "shyness" to refer to different kinds of behaviors, ...


8

What is interesting about this phenomenon is that it runs counter to the scarcity principle. Countless research has shown that the more scarce a commodity is, the more desirable it becomes. This is often capitalized on in marketing ("limited edition" and so on). Thus, the last donut should actually be even more attractive than one of many donuts. So ...


6

There is at least one somewhat influential theory according to which inhibition of sexual urges, aggressive urges, and many others (such as inhibition of racist behaviour for prosocial reasons) depend on a common pool of resources: the so-called ego depletion theory. Ego depletion means that inhibiting urges draws from a finite resource, and once it is ...


6

Déformation professionnelle is probably the closest match: Déformation professionnelle is a French phrase, meaning a tendency to look at things from the point of view of one's own profession rather than from a broader perspective. It is often translated as "professional deformation" or "job conditioning". The implication is that professional training, ...


6

There's quite a bit of research related to this topic: Male CEOs with deeper voices make more money and manage larger companies (Mayew et al., 2013). People are more likely to say they would vote for a political candidate with a deeper voice (Klofstad et al., 2012; Tigue et al., 2011). People rate lower-pitched voices as more persuasive than ...


6

Ellis (1974) thought that men prefer rotund features in women and that blonde hair creates such a roundish upper body shape because the blonde hair, which is close in color to (a white woman's) skin, would blend with the skin. In his famous book, The naked ape, Desmond Morris (1967) documented that men prefer adolescent features. In his opinion blonde hair ...


5

The American Psychological Association requires graduate programs to cover a range of core competencies, including "the breadth of scientific psychology, it's history and development, it's research methods, and its applications. To achieve this end, the students shall be exposed to the current body of knowledge in at least the following areas:...history and ...


5

Andrew Gelman has blogged and published about the "hot hand" phenomenon from a statistical perspective. His statistical perspective is probably fairly authoritative, and his psychological perspective, at least in being very inclusive, not implausible. His basic idea is the following: Previous wins are very unlikely to have no effect on future performance. ...


5

This is in reply to your first question. Taste – in food, music, and sex – is in part a result of imprinting. You find women or men attractive that are like your parents or the community you grew up in because of sexual imprinting (e.g. Aronsson, 2011). Aronsson writes of a sensitive period where this imprinting happens, but I am not so sure that the ...


5

There is a large and diverse literature on this topic which paints a complex picture of the relationship between trauma and empathy. Some studies have found significant trauma symptoms to be related to less empathy. A study of Israeli children who had experienced the trauma of Arab missile attacks found that 66% of children with very negative attitudes ...


4

I'm not entirely sure what you mean by "renounce," but you may find some answers to your question in the fields of social psychology and behavioral economics. The first part of your question describes someone who is unwilling to commit or make a decision for fear of losing out on future opportunities. There has been research to indicate that having more ...


4

The question of whether "nice guys finish last", also known as the nice guy stereotype, is often studied in an economic or resource-allocation context as a more general case. According to the Competitive Altruism Hypothesis (e.g., Hardy and Van Vugt, 2006) altruistic or prosocial behavior helps the actor to accumulate social status, which in turn confers ...


4

Based on the previous answer, I digged a little deeper myself and found some other interesting data. The Mehl et al. paper is indeed great because it sampled naturally occurring speech occurring over several days. Previous research seems to rely mainly on speech sampled in specific situations. Nevertheless, the evidence seems to converge. I found two ...


4

It seems to be related to a kind of "Peer pressure". This is due the change of the context. A profound discussion is regarded as confidential talk and you will notice that the voice volume is lower than a discussion with many people. But why is a profound discussion regarded as confidential? Maybe because you could touch scientific taboos. Every time you ...


4

Plenty. The elaboration likelihood model compares the efficacy of persuasive argument under various conditions – this wouldn't be worthwhile if its efficacy were zero. Attention plays an important role: if an audience is inattentive, the semantic content of an argument may matter less than other factors involved in persuasion. Reactance is also relevant in ...


4

There are two factors at work in what is being researched: interest and money. Researchers research what they find interesting. So if you can interest someone in your idea, then chances are that they will want to research it. But wether they will actually do that research will depend on wether it seems more interesting to them than what they are currently ...


4

This is called the Einstellung effect: ...Einstellung refers to a person's predisposition to solve a given problem in a specific manner even though "better" or more appropriate methods of solving the problem exist It is related to the idea of functional fixedness: Functional fixedness is a cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object only ...


4

The Yahoo Lifestyle website gives a popular description of the following study: Fox & Rooney. The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences 76 (2015) 161–165 The study basically concludes that in a population of males (and I ...


4

More recent research suggests that when people talk about envy, they may actually refer to two different kinds of emotions. One is the classic "evil" form of envy and the other is a benign kind of envy, which is also painful but not hostile. Quoting the abstract from Van de Ven et al. (2009): Envy is the painful emotion caused by the good fortune of ...


4

I don't know of a single term for it, but what you're describing is, in essence, causal inference driven by "statistics", "co-variation", "co-occurrence", or "contiguity" (the terms are largely interchangeable). If you're interested, there's a quite in-depth discussion review of theories of different theories of causal inference, including statistical ...


3

The literature on social grooming in humans mentions examples of grooming, most of which are unique to humans, include: running fingers through another’s hair, giving massages, washing the body or hair, shaving, removing lint or hair from another’s clothing, swatting away insects, and giving manicures or pedicures, and removing pus from blemishes or ...


3

@jona is correct: from a statistical point of view, this "hot hand" effect is often an illusion, produced by our own faulty statistical intuitions. However, this isn't the whole story - even if we overestimate it, performance does systematically vary over time. Most of the work on this, or at least most of the work I know, has been in the Positive ...


3

I'm not sure I can give you the data purely for physical attractiveness, but what has been intensively researched is passionate love, which includes physical attraction. Passionate love is usually assumed to include sexual desire, and correlates quite well with rated attraction. As Hatfield writes: Generally, passionate love is associated with the terms ...


3

I suppose one explanation of this observation is that being a driver in a car is a semi-private space. It is semi-private in that it often feels like people can't see you. In addition, even if someone sees you, you will be driving away from them shortly. And it is unlikely that they know who you are and that your nose picking will ever affect your ...


3

I believe the name you are searching for is conformity. One of the most well-known examples: Asch Conformity Experiments.


3

Much of the scientific literature in psychology is concerned with proposing and empirically testing theories. However, if you are a practitioner you are interested in how you can apply these ideas to achieve applied goals. This requires that you understand the support for various scientific ideas and that you are able to apply them to a specific situation. ...


3

Assuming the specific case of being "motivated towards a career" rather then simply getting a job to make ends meet, there can be several factors. Social status is probably the most common pursuit of a career. Enjoyment, which is the ideal reason for pursuing a career. Usually a career sought for enjoyment is referred to as 'pursuing one's dream'. ...



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