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10

What is interesting about this phenomenon is that it runs counter to the scarcity principle. Countless research has shown that the more scarce a commodity is, the more desirable it becomes. This is often capitalized on in marketing ("limited edition" and so on). Thus, the last donut should actually be even more attractive than one of many donuts. So ...


10

Funnily enough, there was a Science article published on this (see here). In their sample of university students, Mehl et al. had participants wear a specialized device that recorded audio samples from daily life (The EAR). They report that (emphasis mine): The data suggest that women spoke on average 16,215 (SD = 7301) words and men 15,669 (SD = 8633) ...


8

It's a matter of degree. First of all, "shyness" is not a psychological or psychiatric term, but an everyday English word denoting a commonly observable personality characteristic on a par with courage, cheerfulness, or honesty. The meaning of "shyness" is not exactly defined, and people may use the word "shyness" to refer to different kinds of behaviors, ...


8

This question is studied within the fields of color psychology and enclothed cognition (e.g., Adam and Galinsky, 2012), currently a hot/controversial topic in cognitive science. Without addressing the substantial questions surrounding the premises of these interpretations for situated/embodied cognition in my answer, it seems that wearing black is associated ...


8

One way to measure love is to look at behaviors that people engage in to express love. Chapman (1995) theorized that there were five broad classes of behaviors that people would engage in to express love: (1) words of affirmation, (2) spending quality time, (3) giving gifts, (4) acts of service, and (5) physical touch. Goff, Goddard, Pointer, and Jackson ...


7

There's quite a bit of research related to this topic: Male CEOs with deeper voices make more money and manage larger companies (Mayew et al., 2013). People are more likely to say they would vote for a political candidate with a deeper voice (Klofstad et al., 2012; Tigue et al., 2011). People rate lower-pitched voices as more persuasive than ...


7

Ellis (1974) thought that men prefer rotund features in women and that blonde hair creates such a roundish upper body shape because the blonde hair, which is close in color to (a white woman's) skin, would blend with the skin. In his famous book, The naked ape, Desmond Morris (1967) documented that men prefer adolescent features. In his opinion blonde hair ...


7

More recent research suggests that when people talk about envy, they may actually refer to two different kinds of emotions. One is the classic "evil" form of envy and the other is a benign kind of envy, which is also painful but not hostile. Quoting the abstract from Van de Ven et al. (2009): Envy is the painful emotion caused by the good fortune of ...


7

To add some general theoretical background... Answering this is very complicated because the answer depends on how you define emotions, whether you see emotions as latent or emergent, whether you recognize high heterogeneity (behavior, cognition, physiology) within emotion categories, whether you view emotions as circumscribed in the brain or emerging from ...


6

I'm not entirely sure what you mean by "renounce," but you may find some answers to your question in the fields of social psychology and behavioral economics. The first part of your question describes someone who is unwilling to commit or make a decision for fear of losing out on future opportunities. There has been research to indicate that having more ...


6

Déformation professionnelle is probably the closest match: Déformation professionnelle is a French phrase, meaning a tendency to look at things from the point of view of one's own profession rather than from a broader perspective. It is often translated as "professional deformation" or "job conditioning". The implication is that professional training, ...


6

This BBC documentary reviews a number of methods for measuring love that have enjoyed some success. To summarize: Dr. Angela Rowe of the University of Bristol presents subjects with unfavourably distorted, unindistorted, and favourably distorted photographs of their love partners, and asks them to identify the undistorted one. Subjects in love tend to ...


5

The American Psychological Association requires graduate programs to cover a range of core competencies, including "the breadth of scientific psychology, it's history and development, it's research methods, and its applications. To achieve this end, the students shall be exposed to the current body of knowledge in at least the following areas:...history and ...


5

Andrew Gelman has blogged and published about the "hot hand" phenomenon from a statistical perspective. His statistical perspective is probably fairly authoritative, and his psychological perspective, at least in being very inclusive, not implausible. His basic idea is the following: Previous wins are very unlikely to have no effect on future performance. ...


5

This is in reply to your first question. Taste – in food, music, and sex – is in part a result of imprinting. You find women or men attractive that are like your parents or the community you grew up in because of sexual imprinting (e.g. Aronsson, 2011). Aronsson writes of a sensitive period where this imprinting happens, but I am not so sure that the ...


5

The question of whether "nice guys finish last", also known as the nice guy stereotype, is often studied in an economic or resource-allocation context as a more general case. According to the Competitive Altruism Hypothesis (e.g., Hardy and Van Vugt, 2006) altruistic or prosocial behavior helps the actor to accumulate social status, which in turn confers ...


5

There is a large and diverse literature on this topic which paints a complex picture of the relationship between trauma and empathy. Some studies have found significant trauma symptoms to be related to less empathy. A study of Israeli children who had experienced the trauma of Arab missile attacks found that 66% of children with very negative attitudes ...


5

The Yahoo Lifestyle website gives a popular description of the following study: Fox & Rooney. The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences 76 (2015) 161–165 The study basically concludes that in a population of males (and I ...


5

NB: my apologies, not enough rep points to post additional links. this is far too nebulous a statement, and if it were true, would most likely be based on non-experimental data. one example that immediately comes to mind is case studies looking at the effects of social deprivation amongst children in romanian orphanages. there are also a lot of different ...


5

I did a quick search and found the following: Barrick et al (2005) (see Table 1). In a sample with a little over a hundred MBA students they obtained the following correlations with self-monitoring: Conscientiousness r = -.24 Extraversion r = .31 Agreeableness r = -.08 Emotional Stability r = -.10 Openness r = .23 Kring, Smith, and Neale (1994) (see ...


4

This is an interesting question, so I'll take a stab at it. Direct evidence for the claim is hard to come by. Generally, religious affiliations, conversions, and loss of faith are self-identified in surveys. The reliance on self-identification makes it difficult to test the claim that people move to some other non-evidence-based reasoning, as they may not ...


4

Based on the previous answer, I digged a little deeper myself and found some other interesting data. The Mehl et al. paper is indeed great because it sampled naturally occurring speech occurring over several days. Previous research seems to rely mainly on speech sampled in specific situations. Nevertheless, the evidence seems to converge. I found two ...


4

One of the very recently published studies linked to in the question, on the relationship between exogenous oxytocin administration and ability to accurately detect deception, instructed participants to self-administer oxytocin by nasal injection before evaluating contestants' decisions in videos of the Friend or Foe game show (Israel, Hart and Winter 2014). ...


4

Psychological entitlement (the belief that one should get preferential treatment) is positively related to an external locus of control (the belief that personal outcomes are due to chance or powerful others). For example, Anderson et al. (2013), report that the Personal Entitlement Scale (Campbell et al., 2004) is correlated with r=.43 to more external ...


4

It seems to be related to a kind of "Peer pressure". This is due the change of the context. A profound discussion is regarded as confidential talk and you will notice that the voice volume is lower than a discussion with many people. But why is a profound discussion regarded as confidential? Maybe because you could touch scientific taboos. Every time you ...


4

Plenty. The elaboration likelihood model compares the efficacy of persuasive argument under various conditions – this wouldn't be worthwhile if its efficacy were zero. Attention plays an important role: if an audience is inattentive, the semantic content of an argument may matter less than other factors involved in persuasion. Reactance is also relevant in ...


4

There are two factors at work in what is being researched: interest and money. Researchers research what they find interesting. So if you can interest someone in your idea, then chances are that they will want to research it. But wether they will actually do that research will depend on wether it seems more interesting to them than what they are currently ...


4

This is called the Einstellung effect: ...Einstellung refers to a person's predisposition to solve a given problem in a specific manner even though "better" or more appropriate methods of solving the problem exist It is related to the idea of functional fixedness: Functional fixedness is a cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object only ...


4

A lot of sources might be of use here, but one thing in your question is not clear to me - when you write "envy", do you mean a kind of resentment towards someone with material possessions that you don't have, or a jealousy in a romantic context? Everything that I would write is about the first meaning, and I have no idea about anything connected with the ...


4

I don't know of a single term for it, but what you're describing is, in essence, causal inference driven by "statistics", "co-variation", "co-occurrence", or "contiguity" (the terms are largely interchangeable). If you're interested, there's a quite in-depth discussion review of theories of different theories of causal inference, including statistical ...



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