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6

This is a really nice paper that tries to explain time-perception in a cognitive architecture called ACT-R. It is a model of human cognition that tries to explain human behavior with only basic functions (declarative and procedural memory, vision, working memory a.o.). Very shortly, the model is as following: There is a pacemaker. This pacemaker creates ...


6

Short answer Hair cells in the cochlea can code sound intensity via the amount of neurotransmitter they release. Higher sound levels result in more neurotransmitter release and in turn to higher firing rates in the spiral ganglion cells of the auditory nerve. Background Sound waves are picked up by the mechanoreceptors in the inner ear: the hair cells. ...


6

Objects are visually perceived when they reflect light. A black object does not reflect any light. In other words, no photons are reflected to be detected by the photoreceptors in the retina. A black shape on a colored background appears black because its brightness approaches zero relative to its surroundings. Black, as any other perceived hue, is a ...


4

Short answer Sensations are different from thoughts and are separated in the spatial and temporal domain. The distinction between thoughts and perceptions, however, is less well defined, but can still be dealt with experimentally. Background A description of sensation is as follows: The physical process during which our sensory organs [...] respond to ...


4

Short answer In practice, absolute pitch is generally tested for by using musical pitch classes. Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify the pitch of a musical tone, or to produce a musical tone at a given pitch without the use of an external reference pitch. Most humans process musical pitch relatively rather than absolutely, and in fact ...


3

Short answer Females are more sensitive to some, but not all somatosensory stimuli. Males are either less sensitive, or as sensitive as females. Background A normative study by Blankenburg et al. (2010) determined reference values for a battery of somatosensory tests including cold detection threshold (CDT); warm detection threshold (WDT); thermal sensory ...


2

It can be either, and is typically both, considering that Absolute pitch is an act of cognition, needing memory of the frequency, a label for the frequency (such as "B-flat"), and exposure to the range of sound encompassed by that categorical label. Another way to look at it is that pitch class came from the necessary assessment and organization of ...


2

Short answer Generally, a few months of active, guided training. Background Based on an article from a guide cane instructor who is a cane traveler himself, I can answer the question as follows: First off - it depends on at least three important variables; The student's background; The student's aptitude; the amount of time available to the student. ...


2

This is a really neat question. A strong predictor of cognitive ability is one's environmental enrichment, or the stimulation of the brain in its physical and social surroundings. Those with sensory deprivation often have less success with social situations and self-esteem, as well as (presumably) less sensory input coming in. The implication is that lack ...


2

Short answer Muscles are controlled by motor neurons in the spinal cord. The number of motor neurons that fire, as well as their individual firing rates govern the control of muscle force. Background Muscles consist of contractile elements: the muscle fibers. These muscle fibers are under direct control of the motor neurons in the spinal cord (Purves et al.,...


1

Elliot et al. (2008) define a hallucination as: A sensory experience which occurs in the absence of corresponding external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ, has sufficient sense of reality resemble a veridical perception (i.e. the perception seems to be "real"), over which the subject does not feel direct and voluntary control, and which occurs ...


1

Those responding make some very good points about being specific about operational definitions and such. However, I've argued -- in an evolutionary psych textbook -- that there is a probably a reason why discomfort from cold and electric shock have power laws with exponents greater than perceived brightness (at low stimulus intensities), for example. It's ...


1

Speaking as a musician and one-time music teacher, this is not just true of the voice. When an instrumentalist records and plays back a performance, it can be very disconcerting. This is especially true of beginners who often imagine they sound much better than they really do. I suspect that the action of performing somehow suppresses the ability to listen. ...



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