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9

Rao et al. 2014 claims to be the first demonstration of a brain-brain interface in humans, using EEG and TMS. Abstract We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines ...


8

Even among researchers there is widespread misunderstanding of core statistics ideas. Look at the work by Geoff Cumming. Example paper title: 'Researchers misunderstand confidence intervals and standard error bars.'


7

The diseases and mental dysfunctions that have been studied are Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, ADHD, Substance Dependence, Autism, Multiple Sclerosis and Schizophrenia (with and without tardive dyskenisia). I'll add more specific statistics (such as trials required to acquire first rule) and better references later. In the meantime, during my ...


6

His very first use of heuristic beyond computer science (he won the Turing award in Comp. Science) is from 1946. The Proverbs of Administration Herbert A. Simon, Public Administration Review, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Winter, 1946), pp. 53-67 If so, the evidence that it is an error has never been marshalled or published-apart from loose heuristic arguments ...


6

Broca is generally considered the first person to localise structure to function, however, there are some earlier individuals to consider: EDIT: i recommend the chapter Neurolinguistics from the Middle Ages to the Pre-Modern Era: Historical Vignettes in: Stemmer, B. & Whittaker, H.A. (1998). Handbook of Neurolinguistics. Academic Press: London. it ...


6

Moral Judgement: From Wikipedia: ... moral judgment ... is "the ability to reason correctly about what 'ought' to be done in a specific situation." Research on moral judgement was pioneered by Jean Piaget, summarized in his book "The Moral Judgment of the Child" (1932), in which he implies that moral development levels off in adolescence. Piaget ...


5

In this answer, I'm going to use "self" to describe the person who is empathizing and "other" as the person who is the target of that empathy (the person who's trying to be related to). The most advance model of empathy (in terms of affective empathy and emotional contagion) that I know of is Angelica Lim's model which is based on the idea that mirror ...


5

A 2006 study by Horrey, Wickens and Consalus implemented a computational SEEV (Salience, Effort, Effort, Value) model for driving behavior that predicted scanning behavior, which I surmise is what was meant. The authors conclude: The most important practical implication of the current results is that a simple expected value version of the SEEV model ...


5

Phineas Gage had his famous spike through the head in 1848, which lead to some discoveries about the function of that area, but these were quite general. See: Harlow, J. M. (1869). Recovery from the passage of an iron bar through the head. Clapp. But, Broca appears to be the first to identify a specific area: In 1861, the French surgeon, Pierre Paul ...


4

for the record, and as confirmation of what the above answers affirm regarding ancient times here is the abstract from a fairly recent historical review of the subject: Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus ...


4

These should get you started, relating to spontaneous behaviour of humans in society, in contrast to normality behaviour: Spontaneous Alternation Behavior by W.N. Dember, C.L. Richman How does complex behavior spontaneously emerge in the brain? - Lisa Zyga Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity - R. Russo, H. J. Herrmann ...


4

There were 2 pioneering papers published in 2014, both claiming to be the first in humans. Grau et al (2014) was published first (August), but the actual experiment was conducted later (March 2014): Here we show how to link two human minds directly by integrating two neurotechnologies – BCI and CBI –, fulfilling three important conditions, namely a) ...


4

If that suffices, I can give you the classical article from the domain of language learning: Gold 1967. The basic intuition is that an infinite number of grammars could explain any given set of strings. Analogously, you can probably consider fitting a polynomial to a set of points, or instances of the inverse problem (reconstructing a source from ...


4

Overall, based on my limited research it appears there is no evidence that people who are more logical are more likely to experience depression. There is a theory that people who see the world more accurately (of which rationality would be a component) are more likely to become depressed. It is called depressive realism {1}. However, the theory doesn't seem ...


3

Check out Networks, Crowds, and Markets (David Easley and Jon Kleinberg, 2010), esp. chapters 16 and 19.


3

I did not find a textbook that mentioned this activity, but I found several articles that describe this Pairing Game. Ellis & Kelly (1999) describe two variations on the game and its use in the classroom. Lewis & Gurung (2003) describe expanding the original game in order to teach additional relationship and social psychology theories. Elias & ...


3

To add to Tom's answer and expand on my comment that lay people and researchers both generally have an inadequate understanding of basic statistics, another study by Hoekstra, Morey, Rouder and Wagenmakers (2014) asked 120 researchers and grad students plus 442 first-year students in psychology to indicate whether the following six different interpretations ...


3

Dynamical systems models is commonly used in the domain of perception and action. See Warren, 2006 for a comprehensive review. This work uses the mathematical formalism of dynamics and not just the metaphorical concepts. An exploration of the references of Warren's paper, as well as of papers that have cited it, will find many examples of dynamical models of ...


2

There are no known domain-general ways of formulating good questions and problems—what constitutes a good question or problem formulation depends on the field or domain. A good psychology question is different from a good literary question, which in turn is different from a good business question. Because there are no known domain-independent ways of ...


2

Are there more complete criterion? The criterion provided above provide a high-level view of the goals that should be sought after by any cognitive system, however this does not address how a system should pursue this goal. For a more complete evaluation of the methods and tools that should be used, please see Terry Stewart's PHD thesis A Methodology for ...


2

I was unable to find this in a scientific paper, and it is not clear from the sources I did locate that this work was ever actually published. However, I found other sources that reference this work and several similar studies comparing humans to rats. The study you mention is also referenced briefly in Tetlock's (2005) book on political judgment; a ...


2

This effect was identified in a report by the New Zealand Ministry of Social Development (Jensen et al., 2006). It specifically indicated that individuals experiencing eight or more "life shocks" (negative life events) experienced significantly more negative socioeconomic outcomes. This effect is referenced on Wikipedia's Cycle of Poverty page ...


2

The first rule of Neuroscience Club is to check your Kandel. The second rule of Neuroscience Club is to check your Kandel. Joking aside, the gold standard of neuroscience is Kandel et al.'s Principles of Neural Science, currently in its fifth edition. It's an extremely (and in the cognitive sciences, I would say uniquely) comprehensive and authoritative ...


2

Too long for a comment, so given as answer. I know of no studies, but what teachers do is connect each name to a face (that is "elaborate") and repeat this elaboration each time they enter class and check attendance (sort of like learning vocabulary or a poem). Personally, I write down the names in the sitting order of the pupils or students, because I ...


2

There may not be a single paper that reviews all models, but I have listed some articles and books below that may meet your needs. Asakawa, Shinichi. (2003). Psychological applicability of simple recurrent neural networks. Japanese Psychological Review, 46(2), 274-287. De Mulder, W., Bethard, S., & Moens, M. F. (2015). A survey on the application of ...


2

I know very little about fmri, but as @strongbad points out, surely it is Professor Thomas Nichols at Warwick. I'm not sure what the authoritative reference is, but Luo and Nichols (2003) might be worth a look. They state: We construct a histogram based on all non-tail data (10th to 90th percentile) and use the location of the minimum bin as the ...


2

Yes, addition becomes procedural knowledge. Below is an extract from the book "Smart Thinking by Art Markman", that clearly explains the process : When you are learning to do addition, the two procedures you have for adding compete with each other. One of those procedures requires some effort. You start with the bigger number and then count up. ...


2

There are a few commercial packages that provide training for verbal and visuo-spaital working memory. The most well-known is CogMed (http://www.cogmed.com). Another popular one is Jungle Memory (http://junglememory.com). Both of these packages have been used in research studies (comment about these results below) There is also a myriad of online working ...



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