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8

As you have already hinted at, the issue is controversial. I could leave it at that and say "no, there is no consensus", and it would be a true answer, but it wouldn't be satisfying, wouldn't it? Instead, I'll briefly define the topic, give a few examples, and then a few recent criticisms. My answer will be weighted somewhat towards "cognition" instead of ...


8

Even among researchers there is widespread misunderstanding of core statistics ideas. Look at the work by Geoff Cumming. Example paper title: 'Researchers misunderstand confidence intervals and standard error bars.'


7

I don't think there's any evidence suggesting that mindfulness or meditation are the opposite of self-regulation. In arguing why, it'll be useful to define terms. Meditation and mindfulness First off, meditation and mindfulness are not the same thing. Meditation generally refers to a family of practices for investigating or inducing different states of ...


7

The diseases and mental dysfunctions that have been studied are Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, ADHD, Substance Dependence, Autism, Multiple Sclerosis and Schizophrenia (with and without tardive dyskenisia). I'll add more specific statistics (such as trials required to acquire first rule) and better references later. In the meantime, during my ...


7

Rao et al. 2015 claims to be the first demonstration of a brain-brain interface in humans, using EEG and TMS. Abstract We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines ...


6

Freudian psychology (and it's derivatives) are indeed pseudoscience, by and large. That said, Freud was arguably the first to systematically theorize and study human behavior and cognition, and in so doing laid the foundation for the scientific study of psychology. It's generally useful for the purpose of such discussions to distinguish between Freudian ...


6

Moral Judgement: From Wikipedia: ... moral judgment ... is "the ability to reason correctly about what 'ought' to be done in a specific situation." Research on moral judgement was pioneered by Jean Piaget, summarized in his book "The Moral Judgment of the Child" (1932), in which he implies that moral development levels off in adolescence. Piaget ...


6

His very first use of heuristic beyond computer science (he won the Turing award in Comp. Science) is from 1946. The Proverbs of Administration Herbert A. Simon, Public Administration Review, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Winter, 1946), pp. 53-67 If so, the evidence that it is an error has never been marshalled or published-apart from loose heuristic arguments ...


5

Mueser and colleagues (1990) examined 117 DSM-III-R schizophrenic or schizoaffective disorder patients and reported a prevalence of 16% for visual hallucinations. Interestingly, they found that the global severity of illness was higher in patients with schizophrenia and visual hallucinations. Teeple and colleagues (2009) observe that this finding makes sense ...


5

This isn't quite what you are looking for, but it's close enough that it might help you find additional information. Munro (2010) found evidence that people tend to discount the scientific possibility of studying something when presented with scientific evidence that goes against their current beliefs. In other words, if people were shown a result that went ...


5

Like all models and modeling frameworks, the utility of the approach is often tied to how much it increases our understanding of the phenomena of interest. As summarized nicely by Smith & Thelen (2003), there are developmental questions that are better conceptualized through the framework of DST than through alternative modeling frameworks due to the ...


5

A 2006 study by Horrey, Wickens and Consalus implemented a computational SEEV (Salience, Effort, Effort, Value) model for driving behavior that predicted scanning behavior, which I surmise is what was meant. The authors conclude: The most important practical implication of the current results is that a simple expected value version of the SEEV model ...


5

Broca is generally considered the first person to localise structure to function, however, there are some earlier individuals to consider: EDIT: i recommend the chapter Neurolinguistics from the Middle Ages to the Pre-Modern Era: Historical Vignettes in: Stemmer, B. & Whittaker, H.A. (1998). Handbook of Neurolinguistics. Academic Press: London. it ...


4

That moment is often called the "aha moment", the Eureka effect, or more generally, insight. There is literature on it, but as you might expect, it is a pretty difficult thing to produce in a lab. Some references: The AHA! experience: Creativity through emergent binding in neural networks. Thagard, Paul; Stewart, Terrence C.. Cognitive Science35.1 (Jan-Feb ...


4

I understand confirmation bias as including this. The Wikipedia page you link has a section on "persistence of discredited beliefs" that corroborates my perspective: Confirmation biases can be used to explain why some beliefs persist when the initial evidence for them is removed.[45] This belief perseverance effect has been shown by a series of ...


4

I think you have three core questions: What is true intelligence and how can it be measured? To what extent does school performance correlate with true intelligence? To what extent does school performance cause true intelligence to change? Intelligence tests provide the best known means to measure general cognitive ability. There is a huge literature on ...


4

These should get you started, relating to spontaneous behaviour of humans in society, in contrast to normality behaviour: Spontaneous Alternation Behavior by W.N. Dember, C.L. Richman How does complex behavior spontaneously emerge in the brain? - Lisa Zyga Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity - R. Russo, H. J. Herrmann ...


4

Phineas Gage had his famous spike through the head in 1848, which lead to some discoveries about the function of that area, but these were quite general. See: Harlow, J. M. (1869). Recovery from the passage of an iron bar through the head. Clapp. But, Broca appears to be the first to identify a specific area: In 1861, the French surgeon, Pierre Paul ...


3

Slayton, D'Archer, and Kaplan (2010) review 35 studies conducted from 1999-2007 about the efficacy of Art Therapy. Their review covers a variety of quantitative designs, as well as a few qualitative approaches. There are some serious limitations to the research that they reviewed. There is little consensus about appropriate control groups, some studies ...


3

Signals and System by Oppenheim (and others) was developed while he was teaching 6.003 at MIT. Similarly Foundations of Analog and Digital Electronic Circuits by Agarwal (and others) was developed while he was teaching 6.002 at MIT. Circuits, Signals and Systems by Siebert was written while he was teaching at MIT. Siebert was before my time, but I believe ...


3

Hofstadter provides a detailed set of criteria in Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies. Some of his criteria that I do not see mentioned above concern the flow of information-processing: whether or not the model evaluated flows through possibility space in a psychologically plausible way, and how to measure that. For instance... Suppose the following: ...


3

has made it possible to have perfect input/output to the brain from a computer Perfect? Definitely not: the complexities of optogenetics of a single mm square of cortex, of a mouse lets say, are extremely complex. As Chuck mentions, many neurons/synapses may be activated by a single LASER and current technologies allow only a few different LASER ...


3

Using Google's search by image feature, I found that the image is usually entitled Richard Gregory dalmatian. From there, I found this page, which cites the image as coming from Gregory's 1970 book The Intelligent Eye. There's also, incidentally, a good list of Gregory's publications on this personal web page, which is probably worth looking at. From a ...


3

I did not find a textbook that mentioned this activity, but I found several articles that describe this Pairing Game. Ellis & Kelly (1999) describe two variations on the game and its use in the classroom. Lewis & Gurung (2003) describe expanding the original game in order to teach additional relationship and social psychology theories. Elias & ...


3

for the record, and as confirmation of what the above answers affirm regarding ancient times here is the abstract from a fairly recent historical review of the subject: Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus ...


3

To add to Tom's answer and expand on my comment that lay people and researchers both generally have an inadequate understanding of basic statistics, another study by Hoekstra, Morey, Rouder and Wagenmakers (2014) asked 120 researchers and grad students plus 442 first-year students in psychology to indicate whether the following six different interpretations ...


2

I have started to see a fair bit of discussion about reproducible meta-analysis. Tim Churches seems to have a github repository with a few examples of meta-analyses in R. See in particular the public health example: RMarkdown source Formatted Markdown output


2

Since asking the question, I was able to locate a first-person account of monothematic delusion, namely, of denial of ownership of one's own limbs (somatoparaphrenia/asomatognosia). It is due to the neurologist and writer Oliver Sacks, who in his fourth book A Leg to Stand On (1984) described his recovery after a fall in a remote region of Norway in which he ...


2

Based on your description I was able to find the following: -Klatzky, R.L. & Rafnel, K. (1976).Labeling effects on memory for nonsense pictures. Memory & Cognition, 4(6), 717-720. (there is a pdf version on researchgate.net, I couldn't upload it here) -Bower, G.H., Karlin, M.B., & Dueck, A. (1975). Comprehension and memory for pictures. Memory ...



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