# Tag Info

13

I can speak to this question somewhat from a cognitive psychology standpoint. We memory researchers would think of text highlighting like this in terms of distinctiveness. (An article by McDaniel and Bugg (2008) may shed some light.) Simply put, highlighting a word in a different color than the rest of the text draws what we call item-specific processing ...

11

This answer is a bit more anecdotal, but perhaps it's useful. From the perspective of an academic researcher (which perhaps is similar to Einstein's perspective), there is a balance between reading the literature and conducting your own research. There is a balance between learning new skills and applying those skills to your own projects. Even within the ...

11

Using the English language, given two sentences that say the same thing, what makes one more readable than the other? Usually terseness while retaining clarity and removing ambiguity. The exact same things make code more readable. Remove everything that doesn't add anything, but don't remove things that do add information. And avoid ambiguity. In code, we ...

10

It's been known that Increased Corpus Callosum size was found in musicians who began music training before age 7 and that Training working memory leads to growth in Corpus Callosum. As for how to train working memory, that's a diverse subject. There have been a lot of experiments involving Training working memory for ADHD patients, however a meta-analysis ...

10

There's a general discussion of speed reading methods on Wikipedia, but let's look at some specific articles and see what they say about reading speed and comprehension. Bell's review of the reading speed and comprehension literature In Bell's (2001) review of the empirical literature, he makes a number of points, which seem reasonable to me: A few ...

9

I've studied this a little bit within the context of timing responses to personality test items. General models of reading speed look at both the time to read the words as well as to comprehend. From memory, eye tracking studies have shown how the eyes will often back track to confusing parts of a sentence (apologies for lack of reference). Some general ...

8

There doesn't seem to be much research on this, but based on my review of the research it appears that deaf people are generally slower readers than non-deaf readers - but that this may be affected by age. Essentially they may start as slower readers but become faster readers when they are older. See the evidence I found below: Conrad, Richard. "The reading ...

6

In general, parental involvement/engagement has lots of positive social, emotional, cognitive, and academic effects for a child's development. Some evidence suggests that the positive effects of relatively general factors like improved parent-child relationship, increasing motivation and (positive) expectations, etc., are stronger than the specific benefits ...

6

If you really wanted to know you could use models of reading behaviour - e.g. EZ-Reader or Swift. The Rayner reviews are the classic go-to to outlne this kind of thing: Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006) (Vol. 62, pp. 1457-506). It will ...

6

This is my current area of research (I'm a Ph.D. student in computer science and cognitive science). Like you said, there are a large number of readability/complexity metrics, but very little research trying to quantify what makes a piece of code psychologically complex. For more information on qualitative studies and models, I'd highly recommend the 2001 ...

5

The two legs upon which speed reading rests, in short, are chunking and seeking. Chunking is reading multiple words at once, while seeking allows you to find those chunks quickly and efficiently. The first exercise below will solve your subvocalization problems, but I recommend doing both in order to read text more effectively. You'll need: A computer ...

5

Consider this, communication is more than 50% nonverbal. Studies vary (from 93% nonverbal to 75%) and the actual percentage is difficult to interpret, but it is generally accepted that most of the communication is nonverbal. That being said, a book is only written word and content, whereas a lecture is dynamic, versatile, and incorporates much of the ...

5

The short answer is we don't know for sure. Look up "alexia" and "agraphia"; pinpointing the regions of the brain that, if damaged, interfere with reading might give some indication of the cortical regions involved. Visual cortex (back of the brain) is obviously necessary for the general population, but it's clearly possible for blind people to learn to ...

5

There are various reasons why this question is interesting for cognitive science research. Examples: Children's programming is more violent and features more death than adult programming. Children's first exposure to the concept of death is often in fiction. Nonetheless, we know little about the meaning of death of fictional characters to children. ...

4

A few thoughts spring to mind: Part of the answer might depend on the maximum value of X (if all the messages are relatively short, that's a key piece of information). It doesn't decay, I don't think. The more information presented to the user, the more it all has to put into context with each other. But I don't think it's quadratic, either; that seems ...

4

Not really. There is some evidence showing n-back improves working memory, but it's fairly weak. What you are trying to do is speed-reading, which doesn't work either. Almost all speed reading techniques (suppressing inner voice, reading blocks of text at a time, etc) don't perform any better than skimming. Speed reading methods generally just trade ...

4

Yes, inhibiting sub-vocalization is likely to impair comprehension. Here is the abstract from Slowiaczek & Clifton (1980): Two experiments demonstrated that subvocalization is of value in reading for certain types of meaning. Blocking subvocalization by requiring subjects to count or say “cola-colacola …” aloud impaired their reading comprehension ...

4

My understanding was that at least some sub-vocalisation is a normal part of reading and writing. The wikipedia article on subvocalisation cites several sources supporting that claim. The article also claims that there is no evidence to suggest that speed reading training that involves suppression of sub-vocalisation is effective. There is also evidence that ...

4

Multiple causes of not reading instructions As @crash notes, there are likely many explanations for not reading instructions. It may be motivated by not caring about task performance. And such dispositions may be specific to the particular task or setting, or they might be partially related to some general disposition of the individual in terms of ...

4

vand den Bos et al (2002) van den Bos et al (2002) summarises research over various ages. They reported: The reading task was to read in 1 min, as fast and accurately as possible, the unique and unrepeated words of a stan- dardized word-reading test. Results indicate that word-reading speed and naming speeds of colors and pictures continue to ...

4

To answer your question, we must first understand what you mean with "read". Since you ask in the context of speed reading, you appear to be interested in extracting meaning from written text. So we can rephrase your question as: Does the time to recognize and understand a word increase with word length? The effect of word length has been studied for two ...

4

A study by Rainer et al. (2011) has shown that words are skipped and apparently filled in mentally quite often (in the order of 8 to 30% of times). Two important factors that increased skipping rates were the length of the word and the predictability of the word due to contextual constraints. Both cases apply on the word 'the', because it is short and ...

3

For the question of whether humans could fight neuro"mind-reading", I can only say that there is very little evidence that information we know but are not thinking about could be extracted using current methods. This means that the old scifi mind-reading-fighting standby of thinking of something else might work--although then we have the "don't think of a ...

3

I just had a project where I had to figure this out. I found that a good rule of thumb was the following: $$timeToRead = 1300 + (chars * 65);$$ So that's an initial time of 1300ms to adjust to what you need to be reading and about 65ms per character including spaces.

3

These dots are known as pips. Pip placement tends to follow a convention, but this placement may vary by region, as you can see by this comparison between Western and Asian dice (from wikipedia): I suspect this arrangement has nothing to do with cognitive science or usability, but is simply a convention. However, you may note that on the Western-style ...

3

The assessment of reading comprehension is not my main area of interest, but some of the many articles on the topic of assessment of reading comprehension may be reflevant. See "measurement of reading comprehension" on Google Scholar (e.g., a couple of the pdfs of reviews here, and here). This entry in the literacy encyclopedia on assessment of reading ...

3

Interesting question! A related phenomenon called the illusion of explanatory depth (IOED) suggests that the human cognitive system has a systematic weakness in this kind of evaluation--I believe the classic example is asking people if they know how a helicopter works (most people say yes), and then asking them to explain how a helicopter works (very few ...

3

Unofficially, it's called "illusion of expectation" by Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons, the guys famous for the Invisible Gorilla experiment. Technically it falls under inattentional blindness (or perceptual blindness): "... the event in which an individual fails to recognize an unexpected stimulus that is in plain sight."

3

Jung does not tell us what his patient found. He circumscribes the woman as appearing "in very unflattering guise" and "connected [...] with all kinds of scandalous stories". What kind of unfavourable scandal she was finally discovered to be involved in, Jung does not disclose. We can imagine anything from premarital sex to secretly working as a prostitute. ...

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