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24

Nehligh's 2010 review Nehlig (2010) wrote a systematic review article called "Is caffeine a cognitive enhancer?" (link to publisher, no PDF). On page S89 to S90 Nehlig reviews the evidence of caffeine as a cognitive enhancer within the context of a history of caffeine consumption: In caffeine non-deprived young (20–25 years) and older subjects (50–65 ...


7

Most of the 'true' hallucinogens are classified as 5HT2A agonists. 5HT2A is a postsynaptic serotonin receptor. Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on the other hand act by increasing serotonin (5HT) levels in the brain, which in turn activates presynaptic 5HT1A receptors. Due to a continuous stimulation of these 5HT1A receptors they become ...


7

Your question is very vague, and on a subject where a lot more research needs to be done, so forgive me but my answer is also going to probably be more vague and less definitive than you were hoping for. Provigil, as far as I can tell is just another brand name of modafinil, which has some very clear advantages when it comes to increasing your concentration ...


7

Matt has the right direction but it's not the whole answer. As he explains, taking a metabolic precursor to dopamine will increase the amount of dopamine available to the brain. L-Dopa, tyrosine and tyrosine's precursor phenylalanine are possibilities. Even if taking any of these precursors may raise the amount of dopamine available to the brain, it doesn't ...


6

Resonance methods can be used to measure neurotransmitter levels. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy can measure the levels of a large number of neurotransmitters. However, this has always been viewed as a fairly static measure of neurotransmitter levels, and so has not been widely used as a measure of neural activity. However, Paul Mullins at Bangor University ...


6

I found an example of a system that researchers are aiming to use in the future for determining the level of neurotransmitter activity in the brain using MRI. You were on the right track with the utility of hemoglobin. The molecule used is somewhat similar. To understand how the probes were generated requires a bit of a biological detour. There are ...


6

According to your snippet, increasing dopamine in the brain will decrease latent inhibition. Dopamine is produced in the body from the chemical L-dopa. Wikpedia states that dopamine will not cross the blood-brain barrier, so to increase dopamine levels in the brain L-dopa must be used. Wikipedia also says that there is a herbal extract containing L-dopa ...


6

Cannabis can cause an acute and short-lasting episode of anxiety, which often resembles a state of panic. When taken in high doses these effects can be intense and turn into attacks of panic and phobia. About 20–30% of users show brief acute anxiety reactions after smoking the drug. These symptoms tend to occur more in drug-naive subjects and in novel or ...


6

How much sleep is needed for peak cognitive performance. If some were for >example wake up one morning at 12:30 pm would a sleeping pill help obtain >better sleep required for that performance the next morning at 08:00 am ? it depends on what pharmacotherapies - per the clinical judgement of their treating physician - one may have consumed. conceptually, ...


5

The phenomenon you are referring to is called synesthesia, which can be defined as (Sinke et al., 2012): Synesthesia (Greek: syn = together; aesthesis = perception) is [...] a crossing of sensory perceptions, where stimulation within one sensory modality/stream leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another sensory modality/stream. ...


5

It's a bit of an art, currently. Following is one technique I witnessed in a lab that takes electrophysiological recordings of tadpole and rat neurvous sytems. The lab that I worked with entrains the neuron, recording it's electrical activity (in a series of drug tests) and injects a marker that goes into the neuron (a GFP-like protein that binds to ...


4

You've received a few great comments from our neuroscience-savvy users that indicate ways in which this question can be construed as particularly challenging or maybe even unanswerable. However, I think there's a much more basic and limited understanding of your question that takes into account your self-professed unfamiliarity with neuropharmacology and ...


4

The current understanding, I believe, is that symptomatic psychiatric disorders may or may not be lifelong according to many factors, but that the susceptibility to them probably is lifelong. Some examples. . . Substance-induced psychosis (which is pretty much what it sounds like) is often though not always temporary. Certain types and locations of brain ...


4

One of the very recently published studies linked to in the question, on the relationship between exogenous oxytocin administration and ability to accurately detect deception, instructed participants to self-administer oxytocin by nasal injection before evaluating contestants' decisions in videos of the Friend or Foe game show (Israel, Hart and Winter 2014). ...


4

Question 1: I am unaware of any studies directly addressing the epidemiology of self-medication with cannabis in cases of treatment-resistant depression (it seems like that is what you are asking about). However, there are several lines of therapy that have demonstrated effectiveness in depression beyond the first line antidepressants (CANMAT Depression ...


3

In a recent study, brain scans revealed that people under the influence of LSD experience images through information drawn from many parts of their brains, and not just the visual cortex at the back of the head that normally processes visual information. While under influence, regions normally segregated spoke to one another. Further images showed that other ...


3

One possibility is related to the Two-Factor theory of emotion. The theory describes how emotion is a product of both cognitive and physiological factors. Essentially, the mind tries to determine what emotion it is feeling by analyzing the body. By antagonizing epinephrine, they kind of inhibit the sympathetic nervous system. So, when a person would ...


3

Broadband cortical desynchronization "begins at the cellular level with excitation of layer 5 pyramidal neurons, and extends to the macroscopic level with cortical desynchronization and decreased brain network integrity." "Stimulation of the 5-HT2A receptor has been shown to enhance spontaneous EPSPs/EPSCs (excitatory postsynaptic potential / excitatory ...


2

Edit (09/14) -- Two years after writing this answer, I need to alter it slightly. Examine.com is a website dedicated to aggregating information on nootropics and other supplements/chemicals. It is often incomplete, but having a singular hub for academic/industrial research is nearly indispensable. I don't know if it satisfies what you're looking for, OP, ...


2

According to this systemic review (:the most objective kind of evidence come from reviews of studies not primary sources:) 1 in 7 schizophrenia patients met criteria for recovery. (:Yes, I use smiley faces to demarcate my separate but supporting propositions.:) Source: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/814844 A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of ...


2

Schizophrenia has no cure, which means you cannot "force" it to stop. However, not every case is lifelong by nature. Information on schizophrenia prognosis: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prognosis_of_schizophrenia "A clinical study using strict recovery criteria (concurrent remission of positive and negative symptoms and adequate social and vocational ...


1

Prozac (the generic drug fluoxetine) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and is primarily prescribed as an antidepressant, but also as an anxiolytic. The side effects of fluoxetine indeed include anxiety, but this is a rare phenomenon (source: Drugs.com). The more common complaints are restlessness and skin rash. In fact, Mayo Clinic doesn't ...


1

Contrary to another post here, SSRIs in my opinion and an increasing majority of researchers studying this field believe that SSRIs and the so called 'antidepressant' drugs cause great harm. SSRIS which are actually Firstly here is a list of common side effects: Insomnia (which is common in depression anyway), increased anxiousness, feeling sick, ...


1

In my opinion this has to do with how perception works in general. There are many situations, where you "see" something, that is not there. Optical and other sensory illusions are a prime example. Usually these mis-perceptions result from sensory input that our organs of perception were not built to analyze. For example, the size-weight illusion stems from ...


1

I wouldn't recommend anyone purposefully attempting to induce low latent inhibition as if they haven't lived with it their entire lives, it will be extremely overwhelming for their brain as it basically wont at all be used to handling the sheer volume of stimuli. That is often why those who smoke marijuana can experience paranoia, they have lowered their ...


1

It isn't humanly possible to pay more attention to your surroundings to level like someone who has LLI can. I have LLI and saying that people can make a conscious decision to absorb more in their surroundings is like telling someone they can breath more oxygen than their lungs normally can by thinking really hard about it. It isn't possible to induce LLI and ...



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