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11

Particulalry short wavelengths (such a UV light) have been shown to suppress melatonin[1], a hormone that regulates sleep. The authors also show that: All subjects had an elevated cortisol level in the 90 minutes prior to onset of light exposure compared with the corresponding clock time on the previous day So there's a kind daily memory in the ...


10

That was an interesting TED Talk, I enjoyed it. Motivation is a very complex, but fascinating thing to think of. You're asking if those three things he listed are the most important aspects to motivation, but I'm not sure the answer can be straightforward. So let's talk about what motivation is first, before talking about how those three things relate to ...


9

I think some scientific insights on this can come from a couple of sources: Cognitive therapy This is a branch of psychological therapy that interprets the human experience as follows. There is an event, then the evaluation of that event, and then the emotion. Disappointment would be the end result, the emotion. Regular therapy might focus on avoiding the ...


8

Increasing Concentration A method that is geared espeacially towards reading scientific texts is SQ3R. SQ3R is short for survey, question, read, recite and review. So instead of "just reading" a text, one is supposed to survey it first to grasp the basic outline by reading the abstract, introduction or table of contents formulate questions as to what it ...


6

Short answer: Dual-process, mindfulness and flow theory are related by way of attention theory. Two previous posts that may be of interest are "What is the relation between concepts, constructs and measures?" and "How can we realize when a sociological question is impossible to answer?". Commensurability This is an apt example of what Thomas Kuhn would ...


6

This is a primary subject of study in game studies and ludology, which are domains of theory and research unto themselves. Moreover, the question as it pertains to games might be interesting to ask over on Arqade, though I can't guarantee it would be "on topic" enough for their community. You might find the following questions from Arqade interesting, as ...


6

All truly great thoughts are conceived while walking.                          ~ Friedrich Nietzsche, Twilight of the Idols Movement promotes cognitive performance. Either take breaks and exercise, as you already do, or set up your ...


5

The experience machine is meant to be an argument against hedonism in that it's supposed to show that humans value other things than happiness and therefore wouldn't/shouldn't hook themselves up to the machine (whether it succeeds in doing this is another matter; Nozick simply points out that it would be "absurd" for anyone to connect oneself to the machine, ...


5

There are definitely studies on this, but I don't have the references at hand. I've heard about this in the online Harvard courses on positive psychology by Tal Ben-Shahar. In terms of "crashing", there are studies about baseline-happiness, showing you bounce back up after a setback, and back down, after a positive event, like winning the lottery. Only ...


5

Writing therapy There is quite a lot of research on writing therapy and expressive writing more generally. As you note, much of this research relates to writing about negative emotional experiences. There is some support for the positive mental health benefits in writing about traumatic events (e.g., see the meta-analysis by Smyth, 1998). While the ...


5

The Emotiv system has been evaluated in a research setting. Badcock et al. (2013) recorded EEG activity with the Emotiv EPOC and a more conventional laboratory system simultaneously, and found that both systems produced similar results for ERPs with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio, but it was harder to detect less reliable signals with the EPOC than ...


3

I can't say whether Viktor Frankl is respected by modern psychologists on average, or how respected he is. Anecdotally, I have heard of both Frankl and logotherapy, but not enough to know much more than that they exist. The real question, though, is whether there is any empirical support for logotherapy, and overall, the evidence (for or against logotherapy) ...


3

This isn't a direct answer to your question . I got the sense that Landmark was in the same category as other so called 'power' therapies such as neurolinguistuc programming etc. The 7:30 report - a credible Australian current affairs program - did an story on Landmark last year. References http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2011/s3367386.htm Devilly, ...


3

Empirically supported treatments are specific interventions which controlled (generally quantitative) research has demonstrated to be effective for specific populations (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evidence-based_practice). The empirical literature on gratitude is rapidly expanding, but, as many of the reviews I will mention note, still emerging. Several ...


3

I'm not sure what study Seligman is referring to, but I can suggest that you look into Shelley Taylor's work on positive illusions. Her original 1983 work looked into the coping mechanisms of a group of cancer patients undergoing treatment, and followed them into their lives after recovering from their illness. She found that individuals who felt that they ...


3

I think you've misunderstood the set point. It's a point of balance (or imbalance) of positive and negative affect toward which a person naturally gravitates. As such, there's not much need to do anything about leaving the set point except to wait / go on living and let time, neurochemistry, and daily life do the work. Deliberate effort is more likely to ...


3

There are a number of scales that are used to measure happiness. One widely used measure is the PANAS, the "Positive and Negative Affect Schedule" (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988). Lyubomirsky and Lepper (1999) have developed the Subjective Happiness Scale, there is the satisfaction with life scale (Diener et al. 1985), and the Oxford Happiness ...


3

The words we use have no inherent capacity to evoke negative or positive affect. Instead, how we appraise, reappraise, attend to, and reflect on those words determines our affective response (e.g., Gross, 1998; Siemer, Mauss, & Gross, 2007). For example, you could tell one person "You are stupid" and he/she might become extremely upset. You could tell ...


2

In alignment with the question author's commentary refinement, "It would already be a nice and useful answer if there was -any- clue on -any- type of happiness.":I submit: Stevenson, Betsey, and Justin Wolfers. "Subjective Well-Being and Income: Is There Any Evidence of Satiation?" American Economic Review 103.3 (2013): 598-604. Web. Abstract Many ...


2

Your question is, in essence, a request for a mathematical model of Temporal Difference Reinforcement Learning. In a nutshell, temporal difference models add a notion of time to reinforcement learning models, which describe reinforcement learning as a comparison between what was expected and what actually occurred. I think most of your answers can be found ...


1

The prerequisite for forgiveness is actually completely straightforward and easy to comprehend: Understand and accept the humanity of the perpetrator. Most people are convinced that there is a fundamental difference between themselves and those that commit heineous crimes. Once you understand that the difference is at best gradual; once you face your own ...


1

Motivation has sometimes been defined as ‘the willingness to put effort into achieving goals’-if we dissect this statement- goals are important (clear, well-defined, achievable, SMART, inspiring , valuable etc) , efforts are important (Can I put the needed efforts -self-efficacy; can the efforts lead to outcome- outcome expectancy; are the efforts themselves ...



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