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8

It's a matter of degree. First of all, "shyness" is not a psychological or psychiatric term, but an everyday English word denoting a commonly observable personality characteristic on a par with courage, cheerfulness, or honesty. The meaning of "shyness" is not exactly defined, and people may use the word "shyness" to refer to different kinds of behaviors, ...


6

Personality studies are typically investigated via the "big five" traits. Some attempts to legitimize the personality traits through biology have been pursued [1]. Following are some excerpts from a particular study that proposed a hypothesis and searched for confirmation in 116 subjects. Of course, this means we should be wary of confirmation bias when ...


6

Ellis (1974) thought that men prefer rotund features in women and that blonde hair creates such a roundish upper body shape because the blonde hair, which is close in color to (a white woman's) skin, would blend with the skin. In his famous book, The naked ape, Desmond Morris (1967) documented that men prefer adolescent features. In his opinion blonde hair ...


5

Consider persecutory delusion. They are compulsive in that they manifest as extreme, irrational suspicions with little or no basis in reality. The irrational components often involve absurdly elaborate conspiracy theories, so this is probably close enough to "the entire world", but it often goes much further than "looking down" into more severe forms of ...


5

There is a large and diverse literature on this topic which paints a complex picture of the relationship between trauma and empathy. Some studies have found significant trauma symptoms to be related to less empathy. A study of Israeli children who had experienced the trauma of Arab missile attacks found that 66% of children with very negative attitudes ...


4

Cool question...really huge though. I'll have to revisit this as I find time to add more. For starters, I just saw an interesting link in @ForbiddenOverseer's question, "Is there any Personality theory that uses scientific methodology instead of subjective interpretations?" For some info on cerebral blood flow and extraversion, check out Johnson and ...


4

There are no personality models in which the factors are orthogonal in the strict sense of being at 90 degrees from one another, unless an orthogonal rotation method is used to extract them. I think you meant to say that the Big Five factors are less independent (or more strongly inter-correlated) relative to the factors in other models. Whether or not one ...


4

I'm not entirely sure what you mean by "renounce," but you may find some answers to your question in the fields of social psychology and behavioral economics. The first part of your question describes someone who is unwilling to commit or make a decision for fear of losing out on future opportunities. There has been research to indicate that having more ...


4

I would argue that a positive emotional experience is something that evolved for conscious organisms in order for consciousness to function in a way that supports survival and reproduction (thus, sex and eating are pleasurable experiences). Once having this system, an organism can then find other ways to trigger it that may not lead to better survival or ...


4

"are there other personality traits that have been identified in animals?" There are quite a bit of hits on Google about this. Here's a foundation dedicated to research on animal personalities: The Animal Personality Institute (API), founded in 2004, is an interdisciplinary group of researcher dedicated to advancing the scientific understanding of ...


4

Cognitive Architectures The description most closely matches the concept of a cognitive architecture. Whereas I would say most empirical cognitive science focuses on isolating cognitive functions or behavioral substrates, cognitive architectures are relatively unique because they attempt to run bottom-up simulations of interdependent sets of cognitive ...


4

Since this question has been unanswered for quite some time I will try to provide an acceptable approximation to an answer. Excuses beforehand for the many block quotes but it is not my area of expertise. The quotes are from a revealing article by Provine (1996). As commented on by others, laughter can be specified better by their actual sound then by the ...


4

Anybody with enough will and persistence can find support for almost any viewpoint they desire concerning autism, depending especially on (lower) quality of source material. However, if you read enough, consistent patterns will emerge in the literature. This issue of Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience is all about autism. Although all of it is valuable, I ...


4

Plenty. The elaboration likelihood model compares the efficacy of persuasive argument under various conditions – this wouldn't be worthwhile if its efficacy were zero. Attention plays an important role: if an audience is inattentive, the semantic content of an argument may matter less than other factors involved in persuasion. Reactance is also relevant in ...


3

You are quite astute to have noticed the difference between your stated preferences and actual preferences - most people don't. Yes, there has been a fair bit of research on prediction techniques and their effectiveness. In 2008, in a study by Paul Eastwick and Eli Finkel, participants were asked to predict their romantic preferences - what they found ...


3

The article you link to is fairly comprehensive, and probably already answers your questions. Dissociative Identity Disorder is no longer referred to as multiple personality disorder. This is a highly misunderstood disorder, and involves many possible symptoms besides the appearance of "alters". "The diagnosis itself remains controversial among mental ...


3

It's because order doesn't matter with the types: ENTJ == ENJT When you remove the permutations of order, there are only 16 possibilities. Another way to think about it is that there are 4 traits, and each trait can take one of two values, so there should be 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 possibilities, which is 16.


3

The table found at your second link (comparing the IPIP NEO and official NEO) seems to have come from this paper by Goldberg (1999): http://projects.ori.org/lrg/PDFs_papers/A%20broad-bandwidth%20inventory.pdf. This paper discusses the generation of the IPIP items as well as the sample it was originally administered in. A 2006 paper (also by Goldberg) ...


3

This previous answer talks about evidence for a global or possibly two factor model partially explaining the correlations between the Big 5. In general this global factor may reflect some form of positive, well-being, social adjustment type variance. More generally, having orthogonal factors is desirable from a parsimony perspective. It's useful when ...


3

I interpret your question as a search for all kinds of characteristics for habitually non-aggressive people. Logically you could also put your question this way: What is characteristic only for people who are generally aggressive? How do you tell the difference between someone generally aggressive and someone not? Here are some things that recognize above ...


3

There are not 16 Jungian types. There are 16 MBTI combinations and 16 Kersian (sub-)temperament types. All are related and easily confused. Jung, in Psychological Types (Collected Works, Book 6), defines two Attitude Types and four functions, splitting the latter into two groups of two. Attitude Type is Extraversion and Introversion and takes up 9 of the ...


3

Here are a few ways of thinking about this: Regression modelling - Main effects: When we predict an outcome of interest from multiple traits (e.g., the Big 5), we often get multiple significant parameters. For example, when predicting life satisfaction, low neuroticism and high extraversion tend to provide the strongest predictors, but there are also ...


2

I am not expert in cognitive science but I can guess curiousity is kind of cognitive process which makes a necessary to know something. Curiousity is kind of that to want to know. Think which things make you to want to know more. It is dependent of individual values, beliefs and usefulness. So, I think things which make you to want to know more are often ...


2

Self aware or introspection would probably be the a good way to describe it. Here is a non wikipedia link which gives a detailed explanation of interospection You could also say self conscious but that is sometimes associated with a negative emotion.


2

It's pretty difficult to imagine a person with Social Anxiety Disorder being an extrovert. The symptoms of SAD include [1]: Intense fear of interacting with strangers and of being judged Worrying about embarrassing or humiliating yourself or that others think that you look anxious Anxiety that disrupts your daily routine, work, school or other ...


2

I'm not sure how constructive it is to think of it in terms of "components", because there are so many that contribute to selfishness: for example, you only feel your body's pain. Food and sex only feel good to you when you're the one experiencing them. Instead, it might be more constructive to look for components of selflessness and altruism, them being ...


2

NEO FFI Scoring The test manual describes how to calculate raw scores for the NEO-FFI. If you have been asked to do an analysis of the NEO-FFI then you should be given access to relevant details in the test manual. If you don't have access, you may wish to contact your local psychology department. They will often have a test library with the NEO-FFI manual. ...


2

Obsessions are defined as intrusive and recurring thoughts that an individual finds disturbing or uncontrollable, and are not a good thing. There is a lay use of the word which means something like "a very strong interest," but it is just that: a perfectly normal if very intense interest, usually with no basis in abnormal psychology.



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