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8

It's a matter of degree. First of all, "shyness" is not a psychological or psychiatric term, but an everyday English word denoting a commonly observable personality characteristic on a par with courage, cheerfulness, or honesty. The meaning of "shyness" is not exactly defined, and people may use the word "shyness" to refer to different kinds of behaviors, ...


8

The basic goal of research on the big 5 is to identify those dimensions of personality that can account for the most important differences between people. How do you determine what is important and "makes the list"? The research from which the Big Five have been derived relies on the lexical hypothesis. In a nutshell, the idea is that if a trait is ...


7

Ellis (1974) thought that men prefer rotund features in women and that blonde hair creates such a roundish upper body shape because the blonde hair, which is close in color to (a white woman's) skin, would blend with the skin. In his famous book, The naked ape, Desmond Morris (1967) documented that men prefer adolescent features. In his opinion blonde hair ...


6

I'm not entirely sure what you mean by "renounce," but you may find some answers to your question in the fields of social psychology and behavioral economics. The first part of your question describes someone who is unwilling to commit or make a decision for fear of losing out on future opportunities. There has been research to indicate that having more ...


6

Has dom-ter loops theory been expressed formally in any kind of Jungian function theory study? Based on a reasonably diverse search of Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus, I am concluding that dominant-tertiary loop theory seems to be an original proposal by the author of the forum post cited by the question author. It appears to be a theory which has ...


6

From the data in the table, it is not possible to tell whether there is a meaningful difference between men and women with regard to the Judging trait, because it does not state the size of the sample, the effect size, and whether the difference is statistically significant. All differences could be just random noise. In fact, the data may just as well be ...


5

Since this question has been unanswered for quite some time I will try to provide an acceptable approximation to an answer. Excuses beforehand for the many block quotes but it is not my area of expertise. The quotes are from a revealing article by Provine (1996). As commented on by others, laughter can be specified better by their actual sound then by the ...


5

There is a large and diverse literature on this topic which paints a complex picture of the relationship between trauma and empathy. Some studies have found significant trauma symptoms to be related to less empathy. A study of Israeli children who had experienced the trauma of Arab missile attacks found that 66% of children with very negative attitudes ...


5

The Big Five model (OCEAN) of personality is based on statistical analysis of a person's tendency to agree or disagree with short descriptive statements, and consists of the following component dimensions: Openness to experience (O): general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience. ...


5

The MBTI is widely used in applied contexts, such as for personnel selection. Nevertheless, it is hardly used in scientific research on personality because its theoretical basis questionable, because its validity is limited, and because its reliability is inferior to other established measures of personality (for a starting point to criticisms of the MBTI ...


5

'Mental Illness' covers such a broad range of illnesses that it would be very difficult to answer your question. However, general consensus is that: people who are receiving an effective treatment for a mental illness are no more violent or dangerous than neurotypical/ 'healthy' people. People with a mental illness are more likely to harm themselves or to ...


5

I did a quick search and found the following: Barrick et al (2005) (see Table 1). In a sample with a little over a hundred MBA students they obtained the following correlations with self-monitoring: Conscientiousness r = -.24 Extraversion r = .31 Agreeableness r = -.08 Emotional Stability r = -.10 Openness r = .23 Kring, Smith, and Neale (1994) (see ...


4

I would argue that a positive emotional experience is something that evolved for conscious organisms in order for consciousness to function in a way that supports survival and reproduction (thus, sex and eating are pleasurable experiences). Once having this system, an organism can then find other ways to trigger it that may not lead to better survival or ...


4

"are there other personality traits that have been identified in animals?" There are quite a bit of hits on Google about this. Here's a foundation dedicated to research on animal personalities: The Animal Personality Institute (API), founded in 2004, is an interdisciplinary group of researcher dedicated to advancing the scientific understanding of ...


4

Cognitive Architectures The description most closely matches the concept of a cognitive architecture. Whereas I would say most empirical cognitive science focuses on isolating cognitive functions or behavioral substrates, cognitive architectures are relatively unique because they attempt to run bottom-up simulations of interdependent sets of cognitive ...


4

Psychological entitlement (the belief that one should get preferential treatment) is positively related to an external locus of control (the belief that personal outcomes are due to chance or powerful others). For example, Anderson et al. (2013), report that the Personal Entitlement Scale (Campbell et al., 2004) is correlated with r=.43 to more external ...


4

Anybody with enough will and persistence can find support for almost any viewpoint they desire concerning autism, depending especially on (lower) quality of source material. However, if you read enough, consistent patterns will emerge in the literature. This issue of Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience is all about autism. Although all of it is valuable, I ...


4

Plenty. The elaboration likelihood model compares the efficacy of persuasive argument under various conditions – this wouldn't be worthwhile if its efficacy were zero. Attention plays an important role: if an audience is inattentive, the semantic content of an argument may matter less than other factors involved in persuasion. Reactance is also relevant in ...


4

Here are a few ways of thinking about this: Regression modelling - Main effects: When we predict an outcome of interest from multiple traits (e.g., the Big 5), we often get multiple significant parameters. For example, when predicting life satisfaction, low neuroticism and high extraversion tend to provide the strongest predictors, but there are also ...


3

I interpret your question as a search for all kinds of characteristics for habitually non-aggressive people. Logically you could also put your question this way: What is characteristic only for people who are generally aggressive? How do you tell the difference between someone generally aggressive and someone not? Here are some things that recognize above ...


3

There are not 16 Jungian types. There are 16 MBTI combinations and 16 Kersian (sub-)temperament types. All are related and easily confused. Jung, in Psychological Types (Collected Works, Book 6), defines two Attitude Types and four functions, splitting the latter into two groups of two. Attitude Type is Extraversion and Introversion and takes up 9 of the ...


3

You are quite astute to have noticed the difference between your stated preferences and actual preferences - most people don't. Yes, there has been a fair bit of research on prediction techniques and their effectiveness. In 2008, in a study by Paul Eastwick and Eli Finkel, participants were asked to predict their romantic preferences - what they found ...


3

The article you link to is fairly comprehensive, and probably already answers your questions. Dissociative Identity Disorder is no longer referred to as multiple personality disorder. This is a highly misunderstood disorder, and involves many possible symptoms besides the appearance of "alters". "The diagnosis itself remains controversial among mental ...


3

It's because order doesn't matter with the types: ENTJ == ENJT When you remove the permutations of order, there are only 16 possibilities. Another way to think about it is that there are 4 traits, and each trait can take one of two values, so there should be 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 possibilities, which is 16.


3

Is the theory of Information Metabolism a reasonable scientific theory? Short answer: No. A literature search of Google Scholar and Web of Science for "information metabolism" finds no empirical evidence to support the theory. Furthermore, it appears that the theory of information metabolism is virtually only embraced directly by the author, Kępiński, ...


3

Do the Big Five traits interact? I have given a general overview of the Big Five model in a previous answer. The Big Five model of personality is based on a statistical analysis of a person's tendency to agree or disagree with short descriptive statements. The principal object of this analysis is to identify independent factors that can explain variation in ...


3

As the Myers Briggs is not particularly valued among personality researchers (see here, for example), it is unlikely that you will find research explicitly focusing on this question. However, the MBTI types Judging (and its counterpart Perceiving) have been shown to overlap with the Big Five personality dimension conscientiousness (Judging = more ...


2

NEO FFI Scoring The test manual describes how to calculate raw scores for the NEO-FFI. If you have been asked to do an analysis of the NEO-FFI then you should be given access to relevant details in the test manual. If you don't have access, you may wish to contact your local psychology department. They will often have a test library with the NEO-FFI manual. ...



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