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8

Facial shape Aggression relates to facial width-to-height ratio (Carré, McCormick, & Mondloch, 2009; Carré & McCormick, 2008). The width-to-height ratio is the distance between the left and right zygion (the outside of the cheek bone) divided by the distance between the top of the upper lip and the mid-brow. Here's a useful image displaying the ...


8

It's a matter of degree. First of all, "shyness" is not a psychological or psychiatric term, but an everyday English word denoting a commonly observable personality characteristic on a par with courage, cheerfulness, or honesty. The meaning of "shyness" is not exactly defined, and people may use the word "shyness" to refer to different kinds of behaviors, ...


6

A useful model for topics like this comes from McCrae and Costa (1999): There's quite a lot more going on here than is pertinent to your question, but note that influences originate from biological bases on the top left, and from external influences on the upper right. Everything else is modeled as an effect of mediated, dynamic processes between these ...


6

Personality studies are typically investigated via the "big five" traits. Some attempts to legitimize the personality traits through biology have been pursued [1]. Following are some excerpts from a particular study that proposed a hypothesis and searched for confirmation in 116 subjects. Of course, this means we should be wary of confirmation bias when ...


5

There is a large general literature evaluating the degree to which personality tests predict job performance. In particular see for example the review by Barrick et al (2001). In general such reviews find that personality measures provide a small but meaningful prediction of job performance. Ipsative testing So in general, you are asking about how ...


5

Perhaps check out the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire which is designed to measures dysfunctional beliefs related to OCD. There are several papers that examine the factor structure, and perfectionism is typically seen as one of the major aspects of obsessive beliefs. However, it seems to be a particular form of maladaptive perfectionism. See these ...


5

This is a primary subject of study in game studies and ludology, which are domains of theory and research unto themselves. Moreover, the question as it pertains to games might be interesting to ask over on Arqade, though I can't guarantee it would be "on topic" enough for their community. You might find the following questions from Arqade interesting, as ...


5

Consider persecutory delusion. They are compulsive in that they manifest as extreme, irrational suspicions with little or no basis in reality. The irrational components often involve absurdly elaborate conspiracy theories, so this is probably close enough to "the entire world", but it often goes much further than "looking down" into more severe forms of ...


5

I guess it depends on what you mean by "false beliefs". If you mean beliefs such as magical thinking, illusory patterns, superstitious beliefs, etc, then the following may help. From an evolutionary perspective, Foster and Koko (2009) argue that false beliefs such as superstitious thoughts/rituals may arise due to the consequence of making a false-negative ...


5

There is a large and diverse literature on this topic which paints a complex picture of the relationship between trauma and empathy. Some studies have found significant trauma symptoms to be related to less empathy. A study of Israeli children who had experienced the trauma of Arab missile attacks found that 66% of children with very negative attitudes ...


4

A few bits of useful jargon come to mind... Low cognitive complexity may lead to simplistic and absolutist thinking, which one may also refer to as splitting or "black-and-white" thinking (because there's no recognition of "grey areas"). Need for closure and low openness to experience may lead to resistance to change, which is a somewhat less pejorative ...


4

I've edited your question somewhat; I hope I preserved its meaning. Neuroticism relates to personal discomfort largely by definition, and probably to uncomfortable social interaction as well, though somewhat less by definition. Consider this hypothetical, mediated pathway: Neuroticism $\rightarrow$ Anxiety $\rightarrow$ Social anxiety $\rightarrow$ ...


4

Ahh yes, The Secret. I'd recommend starting with Wikipedia for a critical view of the "law of attraction" and the book as a whole. The former page has some particularly good excerpts to offer (emphasis added; hyperlinks not preserved, though I'd appreciate help editing them back in): Skeptical Inquirer magazine criticized the lack of falsifiability and ...


4

Several other disorders relate to introversion, including: Avoidant personality disorder (Morey et al., 2002) Obsessive-compulsive disorder (Samuels et al., 2000) Schizotypal personality disorder (Funder, 1997? Don't have it on-hand, but will try to verify this later when I do.) Schizoid personality disorder (Morey et al., 2002) Generalized anxiety ...


4

There are no personality models in which the factors are orthogonal in the strict sense of being at 90 degrees from one another, unless an orthogonal rotation method is used to extract them. I think you meant to say that the Big Five factors are less independent (or more strongly inter-correlated) relative to the factors in other models. Whether or not one ...


4

I would argue that a positive emotional experience is something that evolved for conscious organisms in order for consciousness to function in a way that supports survival and reproduction (thus, sex and eating are pleasurable experiences). Once having this system, an organism can then find other ways to trigger it that may not lead to better survival or ...


4

I'm not entirely sure what you mean by "renounce," but you may find some answers to your question in the fields of social psychology and behavioral economics. The first part of your question describes someone who is unwilling to commit or make a decision for fear of losing out on future opportunities. There has been research to indicate that having more ...


4

Anybody with enough will and persistence can find support for almost any viewpoint they desire concerning autism, depending especially on (lower) quality of source material. However, if you read enough, consistent patterns will emerge in the literature. This issue of Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience is all about autism. Although all of it is valuable, I ...


4

Plenty. The elaboration likelihood model compares the efficacy of persuasive argument under various conditions – this wouldn't be worthwhile if its efficacy were zero. Attention plays an important role: if an audience is inattentive, the semantic content of an argument may matter less than other factors involved in persuasion. Reactance is also relevant in ...


3

I've been commenting a lot and not answering for quite some time now! My hesitation was largely due to the terms "unfailingly", the mixture of "altruism" and "non-cruelty", and having forgotten my intention to answer. My answer certainly won't be foolproof (haven't yet heard of a trait model that is), and I may not cover both altruism and non-cruelty, but ...


3

I'm giving this as an answer, because it is too long for a comment: The Law of Attraction and Positive Thinking are not the same and should not be confused as they are in the question. The Law of Attraction – as it was developed in the New Thought Movement, taken up and spread in the New Age community by Esther and Jerry Hicks, and made popular by the ...


3

Basically an introverted or shy person is caught in a viscious circle: you don't interact with people much because often you don't feel the need because of this you don't have much practice in interacting with other people so if you try to interact when you do feel the urge, you feel that you don't interact very successfully or even "fail" this in turn ...


3

As your luck would have it, there is a study by Schwartz et al. (2003) that examines just that. They found that there was a specific personality type associated with music preference in adolescents. The paper is freely available on familywise.ca. Schwartz, K. D., & Fouts, G. T. (2003). Music preferences, personality style, and developmental issues of ...


3

Maniacal stubbornness and perfectionism could be symptoms of anankastic personality disorder, classified in ICD-10 as F.60.5. Personality disorder characterized by feelings of doubt, perfectionism, excessive conscientiousness, checking and preoccupation with details, stubbornness, caution, and rigidity. There may be insistent and unwelcome thoughts ...


3

The problem with this question is that the answer depends on your definition of psychological health. In Civilization and Its Discontents Freud argued that civilization itself is a source of suffering and that basically all civilized human beings develop neurotic symptoms due to the repression of their drives. According to this theory the prevalence of ...


3

Not entirely sure what specific stats you'd be interested in, but Wikipedia has plenty on prevalences of specific mental disorders. For anxiety disorders, which include obsessive compulsive disorder: A review that pooled surveys in different countries up to 2004 found overall average prevalence estimates for any anxiety disorder of 10.6% (in the 12 ...


3

How many personality factors are there? The history of personality testing can be summarised in terms of an initial period where there was a vast number of personality traits. In response to this, there have been various attempts to synthesise these traits into a smaller number of underlying factors. There is a huge literature on this process (e.g., Digman, ...


3

The IPIP website provides what I think is a complete list of the items: There is a a table of contents here: http://ipip.ori.org/newIPIPitemsTOC.htm and this appears to be a complete list of items: http://ipip.ori.org/new2413Items.htm


3

Cool question...really huge though. I'll have to revisit this as I find time to add more. For starters, I just saw an interesting link in @ForbiddenOverseer's question, "Is there any Personality theory that uses scientific methodology instead of subjective interpretations?" For some info on cerebral blood flow and extraversion, check out Johnson and ...



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