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As mentioned in the definitions section on page 2 of the paper, $D(q||p) = <ln(q/p)>_q$ is the Kullback-Leibler divergence or cross-entropy between two densities. The reason for the negative logs is that is the convention when discussing entropy in the context of information theory. This allows information to be combined additively. ...


Extensively. Most prominently, recently, by David Poeppel, Oded Ghitza and Anne-Lise Giraud, in a series of papers. They've, to be precise, mostly focused on MEG correlations with the filtered speech amplitude envelope. Areas around the auditory cortex track it fairly well it seems. There is still much debate about what this means and where it comes from, ...

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