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8

There is no true frame rate of the eyes, but there are limitations. The brain uses blurring to simulate continuity. Films are shot at 24 frames per second; if you go too much lower than that, the film will seem choppy. This is because the motion blurring process is too fast and it finishes "blurring" before the frame changes, so you just see choppy ...


7

It's from fear sprung out of the inability to clearly identify and interpret something and from that know how to react to it. There's something skewed with what you see, something deviating from your mental model of what a face (in this example) looks like. That makes us perceive it as something unknown, and what's unknown is also perceived as unpredictable ...


7

Well for one, the first neurons to decode this symbol are orientation neurons, in V1 of the primary visual cortex. So some neurons have enhanced firing for say a 45 degree angle, and neighboring neurons for a 46 degree angle, and so on. Higher up the processing stream groups of neurons respond to shapes, that are a conglomerate of the orientation lines. Then ...


7

The first one is a test if a child has understood conservation of matter. It is an example of a conservation task. These belong to the tests used in the framework of Piaget to test what stage of development a child is in. Here is a video demonstration of the cookie task. Here is another question on this site pertaining to a different conservation task. The ...


6

I think the answer is a qualified yes, humans can think without language. Ultimately though it depends on what you mean by "think." There is a remarkably large number of deaf people who are not exposed either to a signed or spoken language even in developed countries. These people often invent their own gesture systems, referred to as home sign systems. ...


6

Jens' answer is pretty much spot on, but misses the fact, remembered from my undergraduate lectures, that your ears actually partially 'turn off' when you speak (or chew), in what's called the stapedius reflex (wikipedia). The most common reference I've seen for this is Møller (2000), which unfortunately is a book, but I'm sure more information could be ...


5

I think there is a misperception at work in your question. There is a wide variety of objects that we never perceive in such a binary manner: colors, fruit (apples, oranges, plums, ...), weather, and basically every other concrete objects. The only things we perceive in a binary fashion are abstract ideas! Good versus evil. Liberal versus conservative. And ...


5

It greatly depends on what you mean as 'noticeable' - what/why do you want to synchronise, and how it reaches the ears from physical speakers. Keep in mind that a sound source being 30cm/1 feet further from the ear is about the same effect as a millisecond of delay (speed of sound ~340m/s) - thus, synchronising on the order of microseconds is generally ...


5

I think this is not a psychological syndrome but just a reflection of the physical procesces. As such it might not be on-topic for this site. Having this said, here is a quick answer. When you hear your own while speaking, the sound source is in a different place than it is, when you hear a recording of your voice through a loudspeaker. In addition, when ...


5

There's definitely scientific evidence that one's perception of time can be influenced by actions which in no way something's duration. It's not quite the happy/sad affect you're asking about, but it definitely suggests that one's perception of time can be meaningfully influenced by wholly unrelated information: 2010 Study: When doctors sit for patient ...


5

This is partially an aspect of the binding problem. Sensory information arrives in parallel as a variety of heterogeneous hints, (shapes, colors, motions, smells and sounds) encoded in partly modular systems. Typically many objects are present at once. The result is an urgent case of what has been labelled the binding problem. We must collect the hints, ...


5

Your question was a loooooong time ago, but I just ran across a couple of good references explaining what backward masking does and how to choose one. This(1) is a great paper examining the neural mechanisms and timing of visual backward masking; according to this (2) 2000 review of masking theory, there are four subtypes of backward masking. Backward ...


5

Seems this is a newly discovered phenomenon! Tangen, Murphy, and Thompson (2011) describe this as a result of their method of presentation: alignment of the pupils and fast cycling through faces with different proportions. It is also important that the cycle of new images remain uninterrupted. They say "relative encoding seems to drive the effect," and list ...


5

There's quite a bit of research related to this topic: Male CEOs with deeper voices make more money and manage larger companies (Mayew et al., 2013). People are more likely to say they would vote for a political candidate with a deeper voice (Klofstad et al., 2012; Tigue et al., 2011). People rate lower-pitched voices as more persuasive than ...


4

If you don't need the mind readers to actually know the exact "words" of the person's thoughts, you could have people who are extremely well versed in "reading" another person's facial expressions, body posture, tone of voice etc. It is a fact that those outward behaviors reflect your internal state, and in fact we all read these signs with more or less ...


4

Michelle Heijblom's (2009) master thesis on Visualising tinnitus with fMRI and EEG mentions the following: Different studies report that tinnitus is characterised by an increase in slow-wave activity (0.5- 4Hz: delta activity) and a decrease in alpha activity (8-12 Hz) at temporal regions. Recently it has been suggested that this loss of alpha ...


4

To answer your question, we must first understand what you mean with "read". Since you ask in the context of speed reading, you appear to be interested in extracting meaning from written text. So we can rephrase your question as: Does the time to recognize and understand a word increase with word length? The effect of word length has been studied for two ...


4

A lot of research seems to have been done on the challenges multilingualism poses for the human brain, but not so much on how much actually meeting those challenges improves one's overall cognitive capacity. At present the general approach seems to be summed up: "Cognitive science suggests that the brain has selective resources with limited capacity" (Emily ...


4

Now I think I have understood your mental model of human perception, I can give you an answer. Correct me if this is not what you meant to ask. If I understood you, you think that the human brain functions like a robotic brain. A sensor captures an image, sends it to the brain (which is comparable to a central processing unit), then the next one, etc. The ...


4

The most well known sensory after effect illusion in the auditory system is probably the Zwicker tone (Zwicker, 1964). If a white noise with a half‐octave‐band suppression placed anywhere from 300 to 7000 Hz is presented at an over‐all sound‐pressure level of about 60 dB for 1 min and then switched off, a decaying, poststimulatory sound similar to a pure ...


4

Vogels and Orban (1985) asked subjects to complete several thousand angle judgments at near-principal angles (horizontal or vertical). They found that the just-noticeable difference (JND), the threshold at which people could reliably detect deviation from a horizontal line, was 0.5 degrees after a 600ms exposure to the stimulus. The real purpose of their ...


3

I'm going to leave some commentary on your question—because you actually asked a lot of questions. Disclaimer—my answer is based on my understanding of human cognition, and I am not citing sources because I don't want this to be construed as a scientific answer. First question: does the brain have different "sampling rates" for the various senses? Answer: ...


3

TL;DR summary: gore and your examples thereof belong to even broader classes of stimuli that activate a number of different aversion and defense systems. To some extent, no one really knows why, and some of the most appealing answers may come from somewhat unfalsifiable theories. Building on @caseyr547's answer, disgust occurs somewhat automatically when ...


3

Certainly. It depends on the type of learning process of a person. One can be better at remembering images, so he might access the images first when trying to define an object/event/etc. This can be thought of as having a photographic memory. The main reason why most people think with words is because it is a much more sophisticated and structured ...


3

Nick's answer links to the very interesting geometrical discussion by the authors, but they leave out some background. The color after-image phenomena is best described by opponent-process theory. The basic idea is that the neural systems representing color have a competitive nature. So the system that codes for red and green is the same system and cannot ...


3

Basically, the retina contains two different kinds of receptors: rods and cones. Cones are concentrated in the fovea and activate ganglion cells more discretely than rods. Rods are more interconnected by horizontal cells (if I'm not mistaken...), so multiple rods can often activate the same ganglion cell, whereas each cone is more likely to have its own ...


3

Yes! Binocular rivalry has been studied in monkeys (Logothetis & Schall, 1990; Lehky & Maunsell, 1996) and extensively in cats (Fries, Roelfsema, Engel, König, & Singer, 1997; Sengpiel, Blakemore, & Harrad, 1995; Sengpiel, Blakemore, Kind, & Harrad, 1994; Sengpiel, Bonhoeffer, Freeman, & Blakemore, 2001; Varela & Singer, 1987; ...


3

Abed, 1991 found cultural differences in visual scanning patterns that seem to reflect differences in the languages of the cultural groups. Individuals from cultures with languages than may be read vertically as opposed to horizontally tended to have more vertical eye movements than individuals from cultures with horizontally-read languages. Individuals ...


3

Using Google's search by image feature, I found that the image is usually entitled Richard Gregory dalmatian. From there, I found this page, which cites the image as coming from Gregory's 1970 book The Intelligent Eye. There's also, incidentally, a good list of Gregory's publications on this personal web page, which is probably worth looking at. From a ...



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