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Bipolar cells reduce transmitter release when hyperpolarized, see the wikipedia page. When the bipolar cell is fully hyperpolarized it will basically stop releasing neurotransmitters. If transmitter release ever becomes totally zero I do not dare to say, however.


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When I have used (or seen) this term, it usually means that recurrent excitatory connections in a network have become stronger than the inhibitory feedback. This means that excitatory activity will grow stronger and stronger, without inhibitory influences to keep it in check. Eventually, the activity within the network will be limited only by spike-rate ...


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Chucks's comment is incorrect. While chemistry is extremely important and incorrect chemistry (and dynamic receptor distribution) can cause the brain to seizure into psychosis: the state of pathway development and the density of specific regions of the brain matter greatly in determining a person's health and is equally important. No one field is more ...


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I don't think measuring serum cortisol levels would be a great method of testing for stress. It is expensive, painful, and the results are difficult to interpret. Salivary levels might be better, but this would also be expensive. To actually determine the effect of stress on cortisol levels, you would need to control for variables including (but not ...


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Basic concepts of biochemistry and some knowledge of general biology (mainly, general cytology) are sufficient (Chem1A and Bio1A would be fine); some specific chapter requires a little more advanced knowledge of molecular biology and human physiology, but nothing "over the top".


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I was wondering what happens if we lose all electrical impulses in our nervous system for a minimum amount of time... if we have a complete elec. blackout, is our memory erased? Or is our consciousness based soly on the synapsis in our brain and does not care about the electrical state? If "we" includes other animals down to frogs, then the answer ...


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The brain is a physical object whereas the mind is an abstract entity consisting of thoughts. There is a mapping between the two which works bilaterally,each one can influence the other. A mind reading computer would receive its inputs in physical form and would then map out the mind by using the corelations between the two. These corelations would be ...


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I think you should reverse your approach. Rather than trying to find every prerequisite, start reading sections of PNS and as you encounter something you don't understand, look up the background information. It's an exhaustive work (and well worth reading!) but you're going to find different sections require different levels of background. For example, ...


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Mania and nymphomania are related in the same way that nut and donut are. In other words: don't let a partial homophony or possible common etymology fool you. A mania is a psychiatric disorder that appears to be caused by overactivity of certain brain processes. Nymphomania is currently not a recognized disorder in the DSM. It is, in the ICD-10 ...


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I think hardware and software are both brain-the matter and function. Mind decides what you use it for, and is based on your learning based on experiences. The learning is not only over one life but continues and is updated. I think the gist of learning is in the soul and is updated based on new experiences. I think soul is software for learning with ...


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I would like to equate the brain with computer hardware while equating the mind with the software. Interestingly the brain executes the steps or the perceptional aspects of human thinking while the mind interacts with the world and changes, alters and re-configures ones perceptions and operational brain functions. For example when one is interacting with the ...



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