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Gap junctions can couple cells directly electrically. Cell types electrically coupled via gap junctions include neurons, the pancreatic islets of Langerhans (Andreu et al, 1997) and cardiac cells (Fig. 1.). In contrast to chemical synapses, information transfer via electrical "synapses" (gap junctions) is nearly instantaneous. In chemical information flow, ...


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Psychophysiology is totally outside of my wheelhouse, but here it goes… Those feelings in your chest, face, arms, etc. aren't an illusion. Indeed, it's long been argued that physiological arousal (in your body) is a core component of emotional experience (e.g., James, 1884; Russell, 1980)--alongside feelings of pleasure and displeasure. Moreover, that ...


1

The search for a biologically realistic neural network is never ending. As Sydney mentioned there are many newer models of neurons that take into account activity over larger time-scales, such as the Adaptive Leaky-Intergrate-Fire neuron. The bleeding edge of this search is the Blue Brain Project, which is trying to create the most biologically detailed ...


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Given that neurons operate by means of signal transmission and not on distinctive 'slow' or 'fast' timescales, I'm assuming that you are looking for abstract models of neurons that are more 'realistic' than the time-independent artificial representations most often used in neural networks, but correct me if I'm wrong. There are neuron models that attempt to ...


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There is a good article on Wikipedia on the Neuroscience of Free Will, with far too much content to adequately summarize here. Since your question is focused on long-term prediction of behaviour, I'll just mention about that. Using newer fMRI technology, Soon et al (2008) used a learning algorithm to predict "free will" decisions from brain activity about ...


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You are right that active adult neurogenesis is generally considered to be restricted to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The latter generates neurons that subsequently migrate through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb to become interneurons (Ming & Song, 2011). Although the ...


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I came across this list of effects of dopamine on cognition (from the book "Cupid's poisoned arrow").


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Too much dopamine release in the striatum may lead to psychosis, and especially to the positive symptoms associated with this disease (e.g., delusions and hallucinations, as opposed to the negative symptoms such as a flattened affect) (Laruelle et al., 1999). The etiology of psychosis is complex. Many direct and indirect environmental factors are ...


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Generally spoken, synesthesia is unidirectional. For example, grapheme–color synesthesia (i.e., letter–color and digit–color synesthesia) is the most prevalent type of synesthesia. The presentation of a grapheme leads to an additional synesthetic color percept. Although grapheme–color synesthetes are strongly influenced by the synesthetic color perception ...


1

Short answer Neural wiring is governed by nature and nurture. Background I'm not a language person, but I will try to address the question on more familiar grounds to me, namely sensory systems. A bunch of most intriguing studies have addressed your question directly. Among these is the study from Frost & Metin (1985), who severed the optic tracts of ...


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Short answer A cap of magnets, or state-of-the-art TMS protocols, will not make you smarter. Background First off, TMS uses bursts of magnetic stimulation in the order of milliseconds (Rothkegel et al., 2010). Pulses of magnetic stimulation are used, because permanent magnetic fields will not induce current flow. Hence, wearing a cap of permanent magnets ...


1

I can't give you an informed response to questions 1 and 2 though I do know that parasitic wasps inject toxin into a spider, lay an egg on the back of the spider and cause it to spin a web that will protect the egg. So some form of behavioural control of spiders is possible. Spider brains are much simpler than human brains but there was a paper by ...



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