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Joseph's description of his patients fascinated me. The concept of two minds fighting for control isn't a new one to me, but was previously restricted to science fiction and/or horror genres. How strange to find a real-life example of it. What I find unsatisfying about the explanation of "reduced inhibitory control of the dominant hemisphere over the ...


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Short answer On the basis of a cursory literature review, I conclude that Jospeh's observations were correct, but his conclusions that a callosotomy can result in a dual consciousness were far stretched. Background First off, I'm not an expert on this topic, but I will give my referenced opinion anyway, as there is no answer yet to this question; Below are ...


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I wanted to make a few additions to Christiaan's answer. First of all, the functional location's as described by Brodmann (wiki) is a little outdated. Nowadays, it is believed that there are networks of regions that are responsible for a particular function. An example is the default mode network, a network of the ACC and prefrontal regions, that is ...


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According to "Tightly coupled brain activity and cerebral ATP metabolic rate" which is summarised in the Scientific American article "Why Does the Brain Need So Much Power?", conscious computation accounts for 50% of the brain's power consumption. From the Scientific American article: Chen and his colleagues used MRS specifically to track the rate of ...


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...studies that show that every part of the cortex does essentially the same thing! I would be much interested in seeing these studies - Although the brain is plastic and inter-individual differences can be substantial, it is generally accepted that functional regions are well defined in terms of their anatomical locations and brain mapping was, and ...


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Short answer The function of the thalamic adhesion in humans is unknown. Background The two halves of the thalamus are separated by the third ventricle. In about 80% of people, the thalami are connected via the thalamic adhesion (massa intermedia, Fig. 1), which mainly contains cell bodies, but also commissural fiber systems that connect some thalamic ...


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A receptive field is often functionally characterized by electrophysiological experiments. During these experiments, a certain area of the body is stimulated (e.g., a certain part of the visual field is illuminated, or a certain area o the skin is haptically stimulated, etc.). Then it is determined if a neuron shows a response, either a stimulation ...


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A nice illustrative image of how the photoreceptors connect to the retinal ganglion cell (RGC), and thereby facilitate the center-surround structure is provided in figure 1 below. It shows a cross section through the retina. Fig. 1. Photoreceptor organization and connections to the retinal ganglion cell. source: McGill University The receptive fields ...


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Synapses likely change their strengths based on a form of spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Is this true for all types of synapses in all parts of the human brain? No, not all. For example, there is frequency-dependent-plasticity, where the firing frequency of the pre-synaptic cell will change the synaptic strength. In Nikolaev, et. al. (2013), ...


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Although this paper is not grounded in neurobiology "Up speeds you down. Awe-evoking monumental buildings trigger behavioral and perceived freezing" by Joey et al. should be a good starting point for further research into the domain of environmental psychology with a focus on human-made environments. In the paper, subjects are shown to have slower reaction ...


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As far as I know, it is not possible for a neuron to change which type of neurotransmitter it releases. However, it is the case that the neurotransmitter GABA changes from excitatory to inhibitory over the course of development. This is occurs because GABA activates Cl- (chloride) channels. The chloride concentration gradient across the cell membrane ...


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The textbook convention is that neurons release only one type of chemical from their synaptic terminals. This is known as Dale's Principle (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dale%27s_principle), and would exclude the possibility that neurons can release both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters. Examples have been found of neurons which co-release two ...



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