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I will try to answer all of your main and sub questions structurally below: (A) How do neurotransmitters manage to depolarize the inside of the cell? Do they force the cell to give up pumping out Na ions? No, the Na,K-ATPase (the sodium potassium pump) keeps active, also during the action potential (AP). Do the neurotransmitters themselves contain ...


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There are other meanings of "potential" than the regular meaning "having or showing the capacity to become or develop into something in the future" (source: Google Translate). In case of "resting potential" it refers to the voltage difference across the cellular membrane. Every cell maintains a voltage difference across the membrane (see a related question ...


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Welcome to Stack Exchange and thanks for your interesting question. Multipolar neurons have multiple inputs (dendritic connections), and one output (the axon).There are also bipolar cells in the retina, these have one dendrite (input) and one axon (output). Regarding dendrites: A striking example are the Purkinje cells in the cortex. These cells have ...


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As seen in Neural Engineering Chapter 4, the main benefits to using Adaptive LIF neurons is the amount of information encoded and the ability to match neural data more realistically. Firstly, as seen in the following table (taken from Neural Engineering) Adaptive LIF neurons, by virtue of their temporally varying firing patterns encode more information per ...


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Replicating fMRI signal was first used in the Tower of Hanoi task as seen in section 5.8 of "How to Build a Brain": There is strong evidence that dendritic processing, driven by neurotransmitter usage, underwrites the BOLD signal (Logothetis & Wandell, 2004). It is that BOLD signal that is actually measured by MRI machines. Consequently, MRI ...


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Behaviorism is the idea that psychology should be limited to what it can directly observe: behavior and the stimuli that drive behavior. A behaviorist approach to studying a psychological phenomenon would be based on studying observable behaviors and the observable things that cause those behaviors. Behaviorist explanations of the phenomenon would not rely ...


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yes, here is a nice paper which shows evidence : http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131017/srep02972/full/srep02972.html from the paper : " a report commissioned by the National Football League (NFL), showed that retired players between the ages of 30–49 were 20 times more likely, at a rate of 1.9%, to receive a diagnosis of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), ...


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The question that you are referring to is worded in a way that I think is leading to the confusion. The question in the title is "Can the mind affect the brain?" but in the question body the final question posed is "Does [a thought producing a tear] not contradict the (physical) law of cause and effect?". The answer is yes to the title question: the mind ...


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Visual acuity is highest in the foveal region, namely around 1/60 of a degree, or 1 minute of arc (1 MAR). At about 30 degrees of eccentricity, visual acuity is reduced to anywhere between 1.5 and 10 MAR when determined by a shape recognition task, as shown in Fig. 1 taken from Lie, 1980: A later study (Anderson et al., 1991) shows the following picture: ...



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