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9

Much of the "higher order" sensation of pain is processed in the anterior cingulate cortex. From Wikimedia Commons There is a movement towards performing anterior cingulotomies in patients with intractable pain. These procedures are also used to help patients with severe depression or obsessive compulsive disorder, so we have some idea that this area of ...


8

For a comprehensive review, see: Berg, D.A., Belnoue, L.,Song,H., Simon A. (2013) Neurotransmitter-mediated control of neurogenesis in the adult vertebrate brain. Development, 140(12), 2548-2561. [DOI]. Briefly, active adult neurogenesis is confined to two distinct locations: the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles in the ...


8

It's all about the receptors, really. There are 7 families of serotonin receptors that perform different functions within the brain, and according to Wikipedia 14 different subtypes have been discovered. The article assumes that a blanket level of serotonin would be sufficient to "perk" up the brain, wherein it is much more complicated. Serotonin serves ...


7

There are two very different questions here. The first question is simple (although it could be interpreted a few different ways). The second question is very tricky and I am actually not certain we know the answer. 1. What do PSPs look like if the resting membrane potential is 0 mV? If a cell is being held at 0 mV, its voltage-gated conductances are ...


7

Like many topics in neuroscience, this is a controversial subject. While dopamine is very popular among the public as a mechanism for pleasure, recent research challenges that view and has started to tease apart pleasure from motivation, finding a distinction in dopamine. John Salamone's opinion: Low levels of dopamine make people and other animals ...


6

I followed you info and found 2 research paper: Why Rejection Hurts? (In case you want to skim through more papers, visit Papers from Social And Affective Neuroscience Laboratory. Naomi Eisenberger is the director of this Lab.) Belongingness as a Core Personality Trait: How Social Exclusion Influences Social Functioning and Personality Expression To help ...


6

Yes, brain power is eroded via a lack of practice. This occurs through the processes called synaptic pruning and brain plasticity. I will leave you with a very basic answer as I am unsure of your level of understanding of cognitive processes. First, you must understand neurons. Then, you can begin to understand synaptic pruning and brain plasticity. ...


6

No. This disorder requires the sufferer to have used hallucinogenic substances in the past: Previous use of hallucinogens by the person is necessary, but not sufficient, for diagnosis of HPPD. For an individual to be diagnosed with HPPD, the symptoms cannot be due to another medical condition. from Wikipedia following the DSM-IV criteria reproduced ...


6

Much of the answer will depend on how you define multisensory. Are you most interested in areas of the brain where multiple primary sensory streams converge together to form secondary representations, or are you interested in areas of the brain that simply have access to that kind of information? I will throw in for consideration one of my favorite ...


6

Association areas are exactly what you are looking for, actually. For example, the ventral intraparietal (VIP) cortex, located in the inferior parietal lobe (along the right border of the yellow area in the image below), just on the border of the occipital lobe, integrates somatosensory (tactile) and visual information. Image via Wikipedia For an ...


6

Potential is relative, so having a negative resting potential simply means that the inside of the cell is negative with respect to the outside. Since an EPSP is going to be an overall positive change, yes, the negative resting potential does keep the cell at far below the threshold, but recall that over a short time duration, these EPSPs sum up to ...


6

Although LTP might be necessary for brain plasticity, I would doubt that it is also sufficient. There is quite a lot of literature about homeostatic plasticity (for a review, see Turrigiano & Nelson, 2004) and synaptic scaling (for another review, see Turrigiano, 2008) which seem to be necessary to keep LTP working in the long run. References ...


6

There are two kinds of neuron-to-neuron connections in the brain. The most well known is the chemical synapse, which is unidirectional. Despite this, two neurons can each synapse on each other with a chemical synapse, and both types of connection are observable in brain networks (unidirectional and bidirectional) The second kind of connection is a ...


6

I think Keegan provides a great set of references, but I just wanted to expand on his answer in a little bit more detail. Penrose and Hameroff's ideas are mentioned a lot on the internet and although they are often debunked, you can never do it enough. I want to discuss (1) what microtubules are and (2) are there quantum effects in them? And, more ...


6

From Stevens & Galanter (1957) Although an extensive investigation of the subjective scale of brightness is still in progress in this laboratory, enough has been learned to show that, for patches of white light viewed in a dark room, subjective brightness is a power function of luminance. Moreover, the exponent is of the order of one-third ...


6

One thing worth pointing out as a very terse hint of an answer: we all know that activation of the sympathetic nervous system is often referred to as the "fight-or-flight response," but parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activation is less commonly known as the "rest-and-digest" response...though this does appear on Wikipedia's PNS page. Eating (or maybe ...


6

Personality studies are typically investigated via the "big five" traits. Some attempts to legitimize the personality traits through biology have been pursued [1]. Following are some excerpts from a particular study that proposed a hypothesis and searched for confirmation in 116 subjects. Of course, this means we should be wary of confirmation bias when ...


5

For introductory cognitive neuroscience, I think it is often best to start with interesting neuropsychological cases -- I think such cases provide an intriguing and intuitive way to get into the relationship between mind and brain. You already plan to talk about HM (and you can mention the movie Memento if you think students might be familiar or interested ...


5

Not using your brain might well be deleterious, but it's impossible not to use your brain unless you're in a coma or something. There are some cool studies on plasticity (see Shayna's answer above) in amputees, where the parts of the brain that control the amputated limb go unused but are taken up by other functions instead. However, "perpetual brain ...


5

Steven J. Luck's "An Introduction to the Event-Related Potential Technique" is a great beginner's book on EEG. It's basic but not too simple, and it goes into the structure of the signals as well as into issues on experimental design.


5

Based on general principles of skill transfer: Reading a book aloud should improve your skills in reading books aloud, and in particular it should improve your skill in reading the particular passages that you are reading. So if you are going to be reading a particular text in a public setting, it makes sense to practice reading that passage of text. ...


5

The primary difference is two-fold: 1) Methods : Social sciences use mostly qualitative methods and content analysis, psychology and cognitive sciences use quantitative methods and statistical analysis. The one basic standard tool in psychology and cognitive sciences is the laboratory experiment, while social sciences usually collect data in the field. 2) ...


5

Research exists on craniopagus twins, maybe most notably Tatiana and Krista, who seem to share sensory input somewhat. I doubt that connective mechanisms such as this abnormal case would suffice to permit "compound cognition" in ways that would enhance cognitive ability similarly to your point about hominid evolution. Your relatively simple proposal for a ...


4

Do you mean evoked potentials, or event-related potentials, or just straight-up EEG? The general way to distinguish between the two is that EEG will tell you about state (aroused, asleep, etc) where evoked or event-related potentials will tell you about operations (processing sound/language/etc); evoked or event-related potentials also generally require ...


4

Neurobiology and Evolution are not exactly my field of expertise, but I'll try to answer anyway. Are there any neurotransmitters that appeared only in human evolution history? Probably not. The common human neurotransmitters we know of, are also found in other animals. More surprisingly, most of them are also found in organisms with no nervous-system, ...



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