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This will be a long post. FYI. To my knowledge, there is no evidence for back propagation in the brain. If you're interested specifically in that topic, Geoffrey Hinton (Dept. of CS @ UofT) has written about it. I'll try to focus on the biology. Some basic neurophysiology first. Neurons have a slightly negative electrical resting potential ...


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Short answer Neurons can increase or decrease the amplitude of their response. A neuron's response strength can be regulated by adjustment of the cell-surface expression of excitatory receptors. Background First off, this question is very broad. To narrow it down I will focus on learning processes in the hippocampus involving long-term potentiation (LTP). ...


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It is generally accepted that all activity having to do with conscious experience is mediated by spiking in the cortex. Sub-threshold activity, such as excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are not carried forward in the nervous system and will 'fade' before having an effect. It all revolves around action potentials. Quoting from Kandel et al. (2000): ...


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Short answer Mostly Cl- is disregarded in calculations of the resting membrane potential and action potential voltage changes, because it is less important for the neural membrane characteristics than Na+ and K+. Background In some neurons Cl- is not actively transported. In terms of the resting membrane potential, Cl- hence settles its gradient passively ...


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In normal neurons, Chloride's reversal potential is near the resting potential for the neuron and also happens to be near the leak conductance reversal potential for the neuron. While not exactly the same these three are sometimes confused. The difference between these three reversal potentials is subtle. Chloride Reversal Potential: is the potential ...


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While the corpus callosum is a massive and the most important between the two hemispheres, the anterior commissure also connects the two hemispheres, and specifically the two olfactory bulbs and the temporal cortices. Saggital section through the human brain showing the corpus callosum and *anterior commissure. Source: Brain Atlas.



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