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Short answer Yes, there is a difference between hearing and understanding sound. Background Acoustic information is processed in different neural centers along the auditory pathway. The auditory system runs from the peripheral end organ in the inner ear (the cochlea) to the cortex. Along the way various processing steps are carried out. For ...


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There is data on this question generated by research on the embodiment of spatial cognition. The idea here is that we mentally represent and construct space in relation to our bodies. From this perspective, the differences that you describe (left vs. right more complicated than up vs down) stem from the properties of how we perceive the world in our bodies: ...


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When serotonin (5HT) uptake is inhibited, 5HT diffuses away from the synaptic cleft. It is believed that eventually 5HT disperses in the extracellular space and reaches the dendritic regions. The delayed action (say, 2 weeks) can be explained by 5HT's action on 5HT1A receptors in the dendritic region. After continuous activation of 5HT1A receptors, they ...


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Short answer Yes, continuous exposure to white noise affects neural responses in the auditory system. First, it can alter the tonotopic map in the auditory cortex. Second, it can lead to reduced responsiveness of the auditory thalamus. Background Note: this answer is based on animal experiments using extreme conditions, namely a continuous noise ...


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This question has been unanswered for a long time and I will attempt to address the issues posed not one by one, as there are a great many questions, but with an overall working of the sensory nervous system with respect to topographic mapping. Moreover, the question uses a great many "suppose ifs" that have never, and most likely will never or cannot be ...


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Parkinson's Disease, as you note, is believed to occur due to damage or degeneration to the basal ganglia, especially the substantia nigra. Cells in the basal ganglia and substantia nigra produce dopamine, and in fact, the majority of the brain's dopaminergic cells have their bodies here, but that isn't the whole story. From Kandel's Principles of Neural ...


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You commented "Yet, it is apparent (to many people) that whales and elephants don't have drastically higher intelligence than humans. So their extra brain regions have to go somewhere. Where do they go to?". I would like add a few perspectives. 1) The notion that intelligence can be measured on a one dimensional scale is not really credible from any ...



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