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They are ordered based on when they were discovered/named (as pointed about by Ana's comment). Alpha and beta waves were among the first signals observed in EEG data. From Wikipedia: Alpha waves were discovered by German neurologist Hans Berger, most famous for his invention of the EEG. Alpha waves were among the first waves documented by Berger, along ...


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I will try to answer all of your main and sub questions structurally below: (A) How do neurotransmitters manage to depolarize the inside of the cell? Do they force the cell to give up pumping out Na ions? No, the Na,K-ATPase (the sodium potassium pump) keeps active, also during the action potential (AP). Do the neurotransmitters themselves contain ...


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There are other meanings of "potential" than the regular meaning "having or showing the capacity to become or develop into something in the future" (source: Google Translate). In case of "resting potential" it refers to the voltage difference across the cellular membrane. Every cell maintains a voltage difference across the membrane (see a related question ...


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The definition of "reflex" is an action that is not voluntary - ie, not mediated by cognition. From Wikipedia: ... sensory neurons do not pass directly into the brain, but synapse in the spinal cord. This characteristic allows reflex actions to occur relatively quickly by activating spinal motor neurons without the delay of routing signals through ...


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The ion gradient that neurons use to transmit electrical signals is not free and costs energy to maintain, therefore needs oxygen and blood. A brain region is considered "Active" if the neurons in said region are firing (or at least some subset of them). If a neuron fires then it releases chemicals known as neurotransmitters that stimulate (or suppress) ...


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Short answer The control subjects were abstinent for at least 60 and 90 days, respectively. Background The article you cite mentions the following in the Materials and Methods, and I quote: From the remaining subjects, age, gender, and AUDIT scores were used to create a matched control group reporting no marijuana use in the past 60 d. A similar ...


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The researchers used a questionnaire to identify daily users, that is, the experimental group contained persons who had used marijuana every day during the past 60 days. The control group, on the other hand, consisted of persons who had not used marijuana at all during the past 60 days. The researchers probably felt that 60 days (that is, three months or a ...


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Bearing in mind the point raised by @AaronWeinberg, there are certainly cognitive processes that are automatically elicited for a given stimulus. In no particular order, the following can be considered automatic responses to certain stimuli: Motion transients Edge detection in V1 Auditory irregularity detection (for instance that which elicits mismatch ...


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It's not that your body knows, exactly, but that one's body is wired in such a way to support reflexes. There is a sudden electrical surge (electrochemical, actually) but it's more compartmentalized than "the nervous system." Divide the nervous system in two: we've got one section containing our brain and spinal cord. That's called the central nervous ...


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The haemodynamic response, through which neurons are supplied with oxygen, occurs as a result of incoming input and local processing in a brain region (Logothetis et al., 2001). Thus, the causal link is that (incoming or originating, but not outgoing) acticity in an area increases the oxygen requirements for that area. In other words: local changes in ...



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