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Generally spoken, synesthesia is unidirectional. For example, grapheme–color synesthesia (i.e., letter–color and digit–color synesthesia) is the most prevalent type of synesthesia. The presentation of a grapheme leads to an additional synesthetic color percept. Although grapheme–color synesthetes are strongly influenced by the synesthetic color perception ...


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The corpus callosum is a massive horizontal white matter tract (commissure) that connects the two hemispheres and it is considered the most important route of communication between the hemispheres. However, there are five additional commissures that cross the midline, namely: Anterior commissure, connecting the two olfactory bulbs and the temporal ...


5

Short answer Neurons can increase or decrease the amplitude of their response. A neuron's response strength can be regulated by adjustment of the cell-surface expression of excitatory receptors. Background First off, this question is very broad. To narrow it down I will focus on learning processes in the hippocampus involving long-term potentiation (LTP). ...


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Psychophysiology is totally outside of my wheelhouse, but here it goes… Those feelings in your chest, face, arms, etc. aren't an illusion. Indeed, it's long been argued that physiological arousal (in your body) is a core component of emotional experience (e.g., James, 1884; Russell, 1980)--alongside feelings of pleasure and displeasure. Moreover, that ...


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You are right that active adult neurogenesis is generally considered to be restricted to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The latter generates neurons that subsequently migrate through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb to become interneurons (Ming & Song, 2011). Although the ...


4

Too much dopamine release in the striatum may lead to psychosis, and especially to the positive symptoms associated with this disease (e.g., delusions and hallucinations, as opposed to the negative symptoms such as a flattened affect) (Laruelle et al., 1999). The etiology of psychosis is complex. Many direct and indirect environmental factors are ...


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Short answer A cap of magnets, or state-of-the-art TMS protocols, will not make you smarter. Background First off, TMS uses bursts of magnetic stimulation in the order of milliseconds (Rothkegel et al., 2010). Pulses of magnetic stimulation are used, because permanent magnetic fields will not induce current flow. Hence, wearing a cap of permanent magnets ...


4

It is generally accepted that all activity having to do with conscious experience is mediated by spiking in the cortex. Sub-threshold activity, such as excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are not carried forward in the nervous system and will 'fade' before having an effect. It all revolves around action potentials. Quoting from Kandel et al. (2000): ...


3

Short answer Mostly Cl- is disregarded in calculations of the resting membrane potential and action potential voltage changes, because it is less important for the neural membrane characteristics than Na+ and K+. Background In some neurons Cl- is not actively transported. In terms of the resting membrane potential, Cl- hence settles its gradient passively ...


3

In normal neurons, Chloride's reversal potential is near the resting potential for the neuron and also happens to be near the leak conductance reversal potential for the neuron. While not exactly the same these three are sometimes confused. The difference between these three reversal potentials is subtle. Chloride Reversal Potential: is the potential ...


3

Gap junctions can couple cells directly electrically. Cell types electrically coupled via gap junctions include neurons, the pancreatic islets of Langerhans (Andreu et al, 1997) and cardiac cells (Fig. 1.). In contrast to chemical synapses, information transfer via electrical "synapses" (gap junctions) is nearly instantaneous. In chemical information flow, ...


3

There is a good article on Wikipedia on the Neuroscience of Free Will, with far too much content to adequately summarize here. Since your question is focused on long-term prediction of behaviour, I'll just mention about that. Using newer fMRI technology, Soon et al (2008) used a learning algorithm to predict "free will" decisions from brain activity about ...


1

The search for a biologically realistic neural network is never ending. As Sydney mentioned there are many newer models of neurons that take into account activity over larger time-scales, such as the Adaptive Leaky-Intergrate-Fire neuron. The bleeding edge of this search is the Blue Brain Project, which is trying to create the most biologically detailed ...


1

Short answer Neural wiring is governed by nature and nurture. Background I'm not a language person, but I will try to address the question on more familiar grounds to me, namely sensory systems. A bunch of most intriguing studies have addressed your question directly. Among these is the study from Frost & Metin (1985), who severed the optic tracts of ...


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I can't give you an informed response to questions 1 and 2 though I do know that parasitic wasps inject toxin into a spider, lay an egg on the back of the spider and cause it to spin a web that will protect the egg. So some form of behavioural control of spiders is possible. Spider brains are much simpler than human brains but there was a paper by ...



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