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There are too many different questions to answer, they probably belong in separate posts. I will attempt to answer this one only: why is there a momentary pleasant feeling - why doesn't the person simply go into a 'no longer have the need' state? First a couple of definitions: Positive reinforcement occurs when an event or stimulus is presented as ...


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Bipolar cells reduce transmitter release when hyperpolarized, see the wikipedia page. When the bipolar cell is fully hyperpolarized it will basically stop releasing neurotransmitters. If transmitter release ever becomes totally zero I do not dare to say, however.


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When I have used (or seen) this term, it usually means that recurrent excitatory connections in a network have become stronger than the inhibitory feedback. This means that excitatory activity will grow stronger and stronger, without inhibitory influences to keep it in check. Eventually, the activity within the network will be limited only by spike-rate ...



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