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6

Typically 'presynaptic' and 'postsynaptic' are used to indicate two neurons that are connected, as you indicate correctly in your second example. Information flow in the nervous system basically goes one way. If one neuron fires (presynaptic cell) it can chemically activate another cell on which it synapses, as shown in the figure. As an illustrative ...


6

Interesting question! I performed a fairly extensive search in Google Scholar and Scopus using various keyword searches, including, but not limited to "color blindness and plasticity", "color blind and brain", "dichromates brain", and "monochromates brain". Strikingly, I found nothing. The reason is aptly explained by Solomon & Rosa, 2014 and I quote ...


5

First of all, the human brain is distinctively larger than that of any other primate, mainly due to the great expansion of the cerebral cortex. The underlying structures have remained relatively stable (Toro et al., 2008). As the cortex overlies the rest of the brain, a solution had to be found, because the whole brain did not have to inflate to increase ...


5

From my undergraduate biology degree, I am only familiar with the second use of the terms which you describe. That is, the terms pre-synaptic and post-synaptic describe a spatial relationship to the synapse, which has directionality, as you know. If the terms are used to describe whole cells, as Chris Stronks covers, and as people often do when describing a ...


3

In general, I don't think the answers to these questions are known. This paper is a good review of unihemispheric slow-wave sleep (USWS); the section on neurophysiological mechanisms is largely speculation based on how slow-wave sleep is generally thought to function--despite its lack of answers, that section is good reading anyhow, since it covers current ...


3

Removal of noise can be done in various ways: Conventional filters: You could create a digital low-pass filter, such as a Chebyshev or Butterworth filter with a cut-off frequency at 30 Hz (filt or filtfilt function in Matlab). FFT-based filtering: FIR filters remove frequencies in the frequency domain. So first a Fourier transform is done and then the ...


3

The recorded signal are spike responses (action potentials) (p.2 Method section), the different states are spike rates (p.4), and the calculated correlation is determined between spike rates and maze coordinates (p.5).


3

Seizures induced by stroboscopic lights are an example of reflex seizures. This type of epilepsy includes seizures evoked by touch and movements as well. The mechanism behind generalized reflex seizures (generalized epilepsy, as opposed to partial epilepsies, is accompanied by a loss of consciousness) was abstracted nicely by Ferlazzo et al, 2005: ...


2

There is some evidence that thought disorder (also called loose association) arises, at least partially, from increased spreading activation; schizophrenics, for example, often show a greater increase in activation to indirectly related words compared to unrelated words, than do non-thought disordered controls. This is primarily a cognitive mechanism, not a ...


2

This article by Bobrov et. al seems to be similar to what you are looking for. They were able to classify (at above chance performance) whether subjects were imagining houses or faces. The training protocol is particularly interesting: they started by showing subjects pictures, but then used a feedback process of showing the subjects the output of the ...


1

I can't speak to color blindness, but a little about the neural correlates of color processing in general. There has been some thought that macaque V4 (non-primary or extrastriate visual cortex) and the human V4 topologue may be responsible for color processing--some studies have found wavelength-specific cells in V4, but other studies have found no greater ...


1

Turns out this is possible with microdialysis. Microdialysis uses small probes that can continuously sample the concentrations of target compounds (i.e. neurotransmitters when embedded in a brain). In theory, though somewhat invasively, one could insert a few of these probes in a person's brain, display the neurotransmitter concentrations on a computer ...


1

Verbalizing out loud is a technique that is actually very useful. Once this begins (out loud, I'm not sure about in your head) the amygdala gets slower and the prefrontal cortex lights up.


1

In short, I'm interested in cognitive, neuroscientific, biological and/or computational perspectives on what we vaguely refer to as meaning seeking. That's not very short. :-P it seems to me that a meaningful existence requires the absence of cognitive dissonances, but I wonder what science would have to say about this, and if there is any ...



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