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9

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...


8

Short version: A question is possible to answer sociologically if and only if its scale and region (informally speaking, its context) are completely defined and its variables of interest are operationalized. Long (really long) version: The following answer may be colored by my quantitative background, but if you give me the benefit of the doubt here and ...


7

Apologies in advance for the long answer. I tried to narrow down the scope by focusing on only a single construct, and only a single aspect of validity, and it still turned out like an essay... Let's take intelligence research as an example. This work started with an intelligence concept – a fairly vague and ambiguous idea about a personality trait that ...


7

Try the IAPS--International Affective Picture System; they have disgusting images as well as norming procedures and data. You can read about it here and request it (as long as you have a faculty advisor) here.


7

Ethics of Feedback: The APA's code of ethics (2010) as well as the Advisory Group on Conducting Research on the Internet (AGCRI) report (2004) summarize ethical issues related to conducting offline and online psychological research. Feedback is normal in psychological experiments, and researchers are encouraged to debrief participants, before, immediately ...


6

ANOVA and t-tests are statistical tests for significance and therefore quantitative. The other mentioned items are scales (adding numbers to a certain choice) and therefore they can be considered as ordinal scales, and hence as quantitative as they are based on numbers. The NASA one can be administered by using a sliding scale which can be considered to ...


6

It's important to distinguish between measures and analyses, because only analyses can be quantitative or qualitative, not measures. Measures are, essentially, systematic processes by which we acquire our data, and analyses are processes we use to look at the data. As a rule of thumb, the difference is not hard to find and is given in the name: ...


5

It depends on the types of changes you are looking to make. In general, my experience has been that changes to a response scale can be done with minimal threats to validity (e.g. looking to change the 4 item Likert type scale to a 6 item Likert type scale). On the other hand, changing question wording itself usually can't be done "without losing validity" ...


5

There are a few factors that could contribute to differences between online versus in-lab reaction time measurement. Hardware variation Participants in an online experiment will use their own computers to complete the task, which will result in lots of variation in hardware. Many studies have looked at how hardware variations affect response time ...


4

The purpose of unbiased hit rate is to avoid invalid conclusions in cases where subjects indiscriminately use one (or only few) response options. To give an example (responses in rows, stimuli in columns): Happy Sad Angry Fearful Happy 1 0 0 1 Sad 7 8 6 5 Angry 0 0 0 0 ...


4

The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking is a good place to start. It scores for fluency (number of responses) as well as originality (statistical rarity of responses) and elaboration (level of detail) on a variety of different tasks. The validity of the TTCT has been examined with several long-term studies, so there is a fair amount of data on its ...


4

Amazon Mechanical Turk is perfect for something like this. In fact, tagging content is one of their default project types, so you should be able to just load in your images and use their template for tagging. If you haven't seen it before, MTurk is basically a labor marketplace for very small tasks. It works best for paying people a few cents to complete ...


4

Short answer: Representations are a noteworthy controversy in embodied or situated psychological theories. Can we explain behavior without reference to representations? Long answer: Most modern theories presume that information is represented somewhere, such as the brain, and that behavior is organized because that somewhere is organized. ...


4

Note: This is not intended to set a verbosity standard for answers, but to give a comprehensive example of what kind of information I am looking in order to further clarify the question. An answer including only a parallel of the principles of ecological psychology subsection would be sufficient, for example. Ecological psychology Ecological Psychology ...


4

I am not an expert on these scales, but my 2-cents worth would be the following, which are simple work-arounds to include all the data: Fine as is; Take the middle of the thick line (the 'average'); Take the center of the circle (draw a cross in it, the intersection is the middle); Apparently "0" - no pain; Take the tip as the marker; Apparently "100". As ...


3

The researchers used a questionnaire to identify daily users, that is, the experimental group contained persons who had used marijuana every day during the past 60 days. The control group, on the other hand, consisted of persons who had not used marijuana at all during the past 60 days. The researchers probably felt that 60 days (that is, three months or a ...


3

It depends on what you mean by manipulation check. Manipulation check to filter participants: A manipulation check is usually done to verify that some experimental manipulation has had some preliminary effect. For example, in one of my studies I asked people to answer a personality test (a) honestly, (b) as an ideal worker, and (c) as the worst possible ...


3

Just to help, here's an illustration of the sort of answer I'm looking for, though personally I'd be happy with any suggestions, even if less detailed than the first below. Long answer: On one hand, Pinker and Bloom (1990) argue that our language faculty is similar to our physical organs, in that they evolved as adaptations to evolutionary pressures. On the ...


3

Short answer The control subjects were abstinent for at least 60 and 90 days, respectively. Background The article you cite mentions the following in the Materials and Methods, and I quote: From the remaining subjects, age, gender, and AUDIT scores were used to create a matched control group reporting no marijuana use in the past 60 d. A similar ...


3

Researchers are often willing to share their stimuli. If you know of a paper that uses the same kind of stimuli that you want to use, you could try emailing the authors. A friendly request with a brief explanation of why you want the stimuli usually works.


3

We cover a discussion on this in an article we've submitted for peer-review. Here is the preprint. I will cite this stackExchange question/answers in the manuscript (post peer review now) as there are some lovely discussions going on, and doubtless, more to follow. Tangentially relevant to this discussion is a simulation we did in the paper exploring how ...


3

'Precision' in classical test theory Most accounts of classical test theory do not have a notion of precision as such, but occasionally, reliability may be called precision instead. The relationship is probably most concisely illustrated with the standard dartboards. This is also explained on the Wikipedia Item Response Theory page, but as you can see, in ...


3

In Stevens' levels of measurement framework, the NASA-TLX is an ordinal scale, not an interval scale, because there is no way to know a priori how much "workload" each point corresponds to. In other words, we can only know how much workload a point corresponds to after observing the data from our sample. Indeed, Hart's own review of the NASA-TLX suggests ...


3

I am particularly concerned with whether or not the task load index could be considered an interval variable, Yup. This is a fundamental assumption people make when constructing, administering and analyzing any measure under the classical test theory (CTT) paradigm i.e. count items and add 'em up. That is to say, your variable is certainly treated ...


3

The recent visual working memory literature has predominately used the method of adjustment. In particular, there is a lot of work using continuous color adjustment tasks: Wilken P., Ma W. (2004). A detection theory account of change detection. Journal of Vision, 4 (12): 11, 1120–1135. Zhang, W., & Luck, S. J. (2008). Discrete fixed-resolution ...


2

A relatively new site for subject recruitment online is Prolific Academic. It is a Mechanical Turk competitor targeted at the academic market. It offers some features that mturk doesn't that may be useful for researchers, such as more in depth pre-screening and demographics information. A potential negative of the site is that they currently require a ...



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