# Tag Info

9

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...

8

Antoine Tremblay has just released an advanced analysis toolbox: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/psyp.12299/abstract It's missing about half the features on your list, although fundamentally, spectral density is a simple task and LORETA is a stand-alone package anyways (although similar approaches, e.g. general CSD estimation, are implemented in ...

7

Apologies in advance for the long answer. I tried to narrow down the scope by focusing on only a single construct, and only a single aspect of validity, and it still turned out like an essay... Let's take intelligence research as an example. This work started with an intelligence concept – a fairly vague and ambiguous idea about a personality trait that ...

7

Try the IAPS--International Affective Picture System; they have disgusting images as well as norming procedures and data. You can read about it here and request it (as long as you have a faculty advisor) here.

7

Short version: A question is possible to answer sociologically if and only if its scale and region (informally speaking, its context) are completely defined and its variables of interest are operationalized. Long (really long) version: The following answer may be colored by my quantitative background, but if you give me the benefit of the doubt here and ...

6

Based on your comments I interpret your question as: "(1) What is the definition of the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and (2) how do I determine the SNR for event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes in an EEG signal?". (1) Signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) is a term often encountered in electrophysiology (e.g. EEGs) and signal processing and can be loosely defined ...

6

ANOVA and t-tests are statistical tests for significance and therefore quantitative. The other mentioned items are scales (adding numbers to a certain choice) and therefore they can be considered as ordinal scales, and hence as quantitative as they are based on numbers. The NASA one can be administered by using a sliding scale which can be considered to ...

6

It's important to distinguish between measures and analyses, because only analyses can be quantitative or qualitative, not measures. Measures are, essentially, systematic processes by which we acquire our data, and analyses are processes we use to look at the data. As a rule of thumb, the difference is not hard to find and is given in the name: ...

6

Ethics of Feedback: The APA's code of ethics (2010) as well as the Advisory Group on Conducting Research on the Internet (AGCRI) report (2004) summarize ethical issues related to conducting offline and online psychological research. Feedback is normal in psychological experiments, and researchers are encouraged to debrief participants, before, immediately ...

5

It depends on the types of changes you are looking to make. In general, my experience has been that changes to a response scale can be done with minimal threats to validity (e.g. looking to change the 4 item Likert type scale to a 6 item Likert type scale). On the other hand, changing question wording itself usually can't be done "without losing validity" ...

5

Short answer: The data is likely to be noisier, the absolute reaction time can't be trusted, but given enough power (which is easy to obtain on the Internet) relative reaction time differences should be similar to those in the lab. However, web-based reaction time studies might pose other problems, because you have less control over stimulus presentation and ...

5

There are a few factors that could contribute to differences between online versus in-lab reaction time measurement. Hardware variation Participants in an online experiment will use their own computers to complete the task, which will result in lots of variation in hardware. Many studies have looked at how hardware variations affect response time ...

5

Your question was a loooooong time ago, but I just ran across a couple of good references explaining what backward masking does and how to choose one. This(1) is a great paper examining the neural mechanisms and timing of visual backward masking; according to this (2) 2000 review of masking theory, there are four subtypes of backward masking. Backward ...

5

If n != m then it will not home in on the 50 % threshold. In these simple N-up/N-down staircases, you can modify either the stepsize (as you proposed) or the number of successes/failures to act as a criterion for upgrade/downgrade. A comprehensive introduction to these staircases and the effect of changing these properties can be found in this paper. The 80 ...

4

What you are actually asking about is the debate surrounding the question: Can psychological quantities be measured? Up until about 1800 psychological questions where discussed by philosophers. A separate psychological discipline did not yet exist. Answers to questions relating to perception, emotion and cognition where attempted on the basis of religious ...

4

There are a range of "adjective checklists" that have been developed to assess affective states, personality traits, or characteristics of individuals. Two of the most widely cited measures are the Multiple Affective Adjective Check List (MAACL) and the Multiple Affective Adjective Checklist-Revised (MAACL-R) (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1965; Zuckerman & ...

4

The number of samples that are necessary for a good parameter estimation does indeed depend on the estimation method. I am not aware of a simple rule of thumb to determine an optimal sample size, but there has been a lot of literature on this topic. A paper that might be a good starting point for a literature search is Van Zandt T. (2000) How to fit a ...

4

Disclaimer: I'm not generally doing experiments where reaction time is the primary DV. But I thought I'd look at this issue and explored RTs from a neuroimaging dataset, and I think the findings are relevant to the question. I think without further qualification, this question doesn't have an answer. Here I've plotted the estimation of reaction time/RT over ...

4

Another option is ScriptingRT. It's open source and fairly easy to use. The experiments are designed via a script language and then compiled into Flash apps. ScriptingRT is designed to measure reaction time differences in the millisecond range. Schubert et al. (2013) report comparisons with other response time programs (e.g., DMDX, e-prime, Inquisit, see ...

4

Amazon Mechanical Turk is perfect for something like this. In fact, tagging content is one of their default project types, so you should be able to just load in your images and use their template for tagging. If you haven't seen it before, MTurk is basically a labor marketplace for very small tasks. It works best for paying people a few cents to complete ...

4

Both the Amsterdam University (UvA) and Radboud University use a public online system for applying for participation in experiments. I forget which system UvA uses, but Radboud uses the sona system (just google it, you can creat an account). There you can see ongoing studies and apply for experiments. Both these cities are big research hubs for neuroimaging. ...

4

To calculate $d'$, you need to know two things: the hit rate and the false alarm rate. The hit rate is the proportion of trials where the stimulus was present and the subject responded that the stimulus was present. The false alarm rate is the proportion of trials where the stimulus was not present, and the subject responded that the stimulus was present. ...

3

Short answer: Representations are a noteworthy controversy in embodied or situated psychological theories. Can we explain behavior without reference to representations? Long answer: Most modern theories presume that information is represented somewhere, such as the brain, and that behavior is organized because that somewhere is organized. ...

3

Just to help, here's an illustration of the sort of answer I'm looking for, though personally I'd be happy with any suggestions, even if less detailed than the first below. Long answer: On one hand, Pinker and Bloom (1990) argue that our language faculty is similar to our physical organs, in that they evolved as adaptations to evolutionary pressures. On the ...

3

Obviously, this question is highly under-specified. The sample size you need depends a lot on the aims of your analysis. In general, when thinking about sample size requirements, you need to think about power analysis and desired precision of estimation. This in turn requires you to think about your research question and expectations about results (e.g., ...

3

We just released a beta version of Tatool Web based on JavaScript and HTML 5 which allows for running web experiments in the browser and measuring reaction times. You can check it out on www.tatool-web.com and of course it's open source. http://www.tatool-web.com

3

You are looking for Mbrola! It's an open-source, text-based diphone synthesizer. While it doesn't allow you to control subtle information like formant frequency, it's perfect for controlling pitch and duration. The one caveat is that I have yet to get it to work on an Intel-based Mac, but that is primarily because the Windows GUI works so well that I could ...

3

The researchers used a questionnaire to identify daily users, that is, the experimental group contained persons who had used marijuana every day during the past 60 days. The control group, on the other hand, consisted of persons who had not used marijuana at all during the past 60 days. The researchers probably felt that 60 days (that is, three months or a ...

3

Short answer The control subjects were abstinent for at least 60 and 90 days, respectively. Background The article you cite mentions the following in the Materials and Methods, and I quote: From the remaining subjects, age, gender, and AUDIT scores were used to create a matched control group reporting no marijuana use in the past 60 d. A similar ...

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