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A phenomenon called "memory reconsolidation" has received considerable attention over the last 15 years. This is about activation (retrieval) causing memories to temporarily enter a labile state in which they can be manipulated, even erased. Most of the research has been with animals, especially rodents, but there are a number of studies on humans and there ...


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It appears that they tested all of the participants (control & stress) at the same time: Memory was assessed 24 h after learning. According to the model by Joels and colleagues (2006), it can be predicted that learning under stress enhances memory, in particular for stress context-related information Twenty-four hours after learning, ...


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The notion of "selective memory loss" as erasing problematic memories presumes the existence of engrams, which is a theoretical localized, biological basis for memory. Despite exhaustive searching, we have not found any evidence of engrams in any animal with a nervous system, however. To the best of our knowledge, it's therefore impossible to erase memories, ...


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Several studies using word lists have tried to see if informing participants of false recall would make them less likely to form false memories, results are a little mixed: 1) Although subjects were not able to perform accurately under these conditions, the warning instruction did attenuate the false recognition effect. This illusion of memory ...


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I'm not sure about children recalling memories of their ancestors, but there is such a thing as Genetic Memory. In one study mice who were trained to fear a specific smell passed on their trained aversion to their descendant. Who were then extremely sensitive to, and fearful of the same smell, even though they had never encountered it, nor been trained to ...


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There is some research that suggests writing a to-do list will help "unclutter your brain." The research is related to the phenomenon known as the Zeigarnik effect. The basic observation behind the Zeigarnik effect is that we tend to think more about tasks and goals that are incomplete. This leads to, among other things, increased priming for concepts ...


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I am a bit amazed, but there is, at least for scent as a memory retrieval cue: Aggleton and Waskett (1999): This study determined the extent to which re-exposure to the unique combination of odours present in a museum (the Jorvik Viking Centre in York) aids the recall of a previous visit to the museum, which had typically taken place several years ...


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Takeuchi et al. (2011) had participants in an fMRI perform three tasks in order to measure creativity, working memory and intelligence. S-A creativity test as a measure of creativity (Society For Creative Minds, 1969). Verbal n-back as a measure of working memory (Calicott et al., 1999). Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrix as a measure of intelligence ...


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The subliminal recollection is called involuntary memory retrieval. This triggers an implicit memory. Further reading: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subliminal_stimuli#Images http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subliminal_stimuli#Auditory_stimuli http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spreading_activation


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To answer your initial statement: no, I don't think they do more harm than good. The testing effect has been shown overall to improve scores compared to traditional studying (though only for long term memory, see (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006) for an interesting discussion), implying that it is doing more good than harm. This study assumes an overall ...


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Yes, they do, but not all of these are different methods for testing memory. Because of the way you've set up the stimulus presentation here, these are effectively all serial verbal working memory tests where the neurocognitive basis may differ or not depending on a number of unstated factors such as stimulus modality or type (e.g., Polyn et al., 2005), ...


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Conway et al. (2005) gives a really nice overview of tasks to measure working memory capacity (WMC). I would refer to that publication for details about the tasks. I'll summarize two tasks below that are related to your question. Verbal Working Memory. A classic way to measure verbal working memory is a reading span task. The task involves presenting ...


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Short answer: Based on my assessment of the literature, I would say that a vague hint leaves room for retrieval practice, and will therefore likely elicit a testing effect. An obvious hint does not, and will therefore likely help recognition, but not recall. Background Spaced repetition refers to the practice of combining two well-known memory effects, ...



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