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Few things: Affective disorder eg depression producing negative self efficacy. Psychosocial stressors concurrent with test Learning Disability Cultural background Level of motivation and understanding.
Say your juvenile offender are on average 16 year old boys from Britain, and the control group consists of (on average) 16 year old British boys who haven't done anything wrong. The only difference between these groups are the fact one has a criminal record or not. If you would look at the true norm, you could be looking at the world wide norm of both boys ...
MRI Spectroscopy is another method for measuring neurotransmitters in the living human brain. Here are some examples: Dopamine Reduction in the Substantia Nigra of Parkinson's Disease Patients Confirmed by In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging Direct detection of brain acetylcholine synthesis by magnetic resonance spectroscopy
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