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12

Firstly realize that Sapir-Whorf was proven wrong in the strong sense, but is accepted in the weak sense. I don't think there's really any doubt now that learning new symbols and languages, or just enhancing your vocabulary in one language, influences thought. Many mathematicians are especially proud of how accurately proofs communicate, and having gained ...


10

What explains the tendency of people to not count the letter F's in the word "OF"? One possibility to explain this effect is related to the phenomenon of word skipping. When we read, we do not fixate every word, but skip a certain proportion of words while making educated guesses instead. Whether or not a certain word is skipped seems to depend on its ...


9

I've studied this a little bit within the context of timing responses to personality test items. General models of reading speed look at both the time to read the words as well as to comprehend. From memory, eye tracking studies have shown how the eyes will often back track to confusing parts of a sentence (apologies for lack of reference). Some general ...


6

Motherese may play a role in emotional development. Soken and Pick write: "Concurrent with the exaggerated speech of motherese, there are probably exaggerated facial displays, allowing infants to explore the particular aspects of the face... Child-centered displays may serve as opportunities for learning about affective events." Walker-Andrews (1997) also ...


6

This paper was written in 2010: Perceptual shift in bilingualism: brain potentials reveal plasticity in pre-attentive colour perception. In this paper, we test whether in Greek speakers exposure to a new cultural environment (UK) with contrasting colour terminology from their native language affects early perceptual processing as indexed by an ...


6

If you really wanted to know you could use models of reading behaviour - e.g. EZ-Reader or Swift. The Rayner reviews are the classic go-to to outlne this kind of thing: Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006) (Vol. 62, pp. 1457-506). It will ...


5

Sounds like what you're describing is "semantic satiation". Wikipedia explains: The explanation for the phenomenon was that verbal repetition repeatedly aroused a specific neural pattern in the cortex which corresponds to the meaning of the word. Rapid repetition causes both the peripheral sensorimotor activity and the central neural activation to fire ...


5

We were looking for an EEG device few years ago. The commercial offers were between 20,000 EUR for a 32 passive electrode to 50,000 EUR for an 64/128 active electrode. This included everything except the computers - some offers were without off-line data processing software. I never considered the EEG systems that were not mentioned in the method section of ...


5

The two legs upon which speed reading rests, in short, are chunking and seeking. Chunking is reading multiple words at once, while seeking allows you to find those chunks quickly and efficiently. The first exercise below will solve your subvocalization problems, but I recommend doing both in order to read text more effectively. You'll need: A computer ...


5

I believe motherese exists to teach the infant to discriminate phonemes in the native language. Kuhl et al. (2005) show that during the first year language critical period, infants gain an increased ability to discriminate between phonemes of the native language, while their ability to discriminate between phonemes of non-native languages declines. ...


5

NLP (Neurolinguistic Programming) is a pseudoscience at worst, and not a science, but "an approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy" at best. There is little scientific research, and no reliable scientific findings, supporting the effectiveness of NLP, and the evidence is probably best interpreted as speaking against the ...


4

Fonagy and Target, although they do not specifically cite the term 'Motherese', believe that what they call 'Marking'- signalling an unreality or playfulness in mirrored displays of affect can play a crucial role in the development of a faculty they call 'Mentalization'. According to their model, newborns experience affect as all-pervading, and do not see ...


4

A few thoughts spring to mind: Part of the answer might depend on the maximum value of X (if all the messages are relatively short, that's a key piece of information). It doesn't decay, I don't think. The more information presented to the user, the more it all has to put into context with each other. But I don't think it's quadratic, either; that seems ...


4

Difficulties with language is not actually a symptom of autism. Autism Spectrum Disorder involves difficulties in social communication and interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive interests or behaviours (DSM-V, 2013). The term "social communication" is referring to difficulties in the social aspects of language and other communication, such as ...


3

It seems to me that it'd be a type of a tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon caused by bilingualism. If you don't use German regularly, it might be attributed to language attrition, but this seems unlikely if you're still being exposed to German more than English. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tip-of-the-tongue_phenomenon#Effects_of_bilingualism


3

An old question, but there has been some recent developments by third-parties and now cheaper and hopefully just-as-accurate EEGs exist. From Are recent affordable EEG devices any good? we see the Emotiv System and a paper that can attest to its accuracy. We also have OpenBCI, an open-source EEG catered to makers, which has recently been funded ...


3

I just had a project where I had to figure this out. I found that a good rule of thumb was the following: $$timeToRead = 1300 + (chars * 65);$$ So that's an initial time of 1300ms to adjust to what you need to be reading and about 65ms per character including spaces.


2

One option is to use Inquisit Web Edition. Here is an example script with a lexical decision task. Unfortunately, it is not free and it requires installation of a plug-in. Version 4 of Inquisit runs on OSX and Windows. Thus, it wont work in Linux or on phones, tablets, etc.


2

Some cognitive scientists I heard are clear about benefits of being bilingual as exposed by @Damien or here - http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/31/science/31conversation.html?_r=0. They also do not hide the associated cognitive costs especially at a young age. I found the following presentation very interesting ...


2

To measure the frequencies of different patterns (do some patterns occur more frequently that others based on group) I see this as a chi-squared test of independence. If you are unfamiliar with the test, a quick example is here. For your situation, all participants would get the same placements of dots, and you would count how often each possible pattern is ...


2

Are there any good experiments on the phenomenon of processing inverted text? This is probably the place to start: Poldrack, Russell A., et al. "The neural basis of visual skill learning: an fMRI study of mirror reading." Cerebral Cortex 8.1 (1998): 1-10. APA What are the underlying mechanisms hypothesized by the quoted papers in processing such ...


1

Like most of language, we have an innate ability to learn by exposure, with the rules remaining subconscious until someone forces us to explain them. Syllables are based on phonemes, so we need to know the rules of spelling if we don't already know the word by sound. Each syllable consists of an onset and a rime. The onset is a cluster of consonants (or it ...


1

I think you've got a reasonable handle on why learning vocabulary in a single, fixed order is probably not a great idea. You may also be interested in what is called context-dependent memory, where you recall things best in a context similar to that which you learned those things in (shitty sentence, but you know what I mean).


1

This idea of score is interesting, but it's painful to assess if the two problems you raised are important or not. For the re-use of the "meaure group" I think it would be careful to not do it. I took much thinking over it and I still don't know what to think. Unfortunately, I have no solution, but if I share my different thoughts process here maybe it would ...


1

This is a very interesting question. Unfortunately, I was not able to find something that would give you a clear answer. In essence, I think this question is asking for a cognitive mechanism underlying word generation in phonemic/phonological verbal fluency test which is a matter that has rarely been addressed (Robinson et al, 2012). Studies such as the ...


1

What is Autism? Psychologists, psychoanalysts and neuroscientists all commonly apply a triune model of the brain : The Reptilian complex (aka “instinct” aka “the Id”) : where primitive subconscious emotions (such as sadness, anger, fear and happiness) reside and which is correlated to primitive neurochemical algorithms that measure one’s capacity to take ...


1

There are often motor control issues, the case study below exemplifies these and an approach to overcoming them with help from technology. As well as the below, there are many personal accounts such as those of Carly Fleischman and Tito Mukhopadhyay that describe the struggle to align output with inner thought. Language is More than Speech: A Case Study ...


1

There appear to be more than your two basic problems: see Wikipedia's list of characteristics. Subjective difficulty in producing speech appears to be one particularly plausible reason to self-initiate treatment. I don't see any indication of a lack of concern for how speech is received by others. Some forms seem to be progressive, but not all are: ...


1

Just for reference, I ended up writing simple web-based lexical decision task software myself.



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