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Naps may help if you are so sleepy that you can't focus in learning/training anymore. More importantly however, even a short sleep gives start for the memory consolidation process. So all the things you learned before the nap, get better shielded against the new conflicting or overlapping information in future. Especially in procedural learning (e.g. fingers ...


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There are at least two different lines of research that are relevant here. Forecasting errors One large line of research has shown that are pretty bad in forecasting future events. This can be seen, for example, in the stable tendency to overestimate the affective impact of negative as well as positive events in terms of intensity and duration. In other ...


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Karl Ericsson, on whose work Malcolm Gladwell based much of his popular Outliers, has expressed on a number of occasions that the optimal amount of practice time a day is around 3-5 hours, depending on domain. There is a great deal of research in the expertise literature, but Ericsson, Krampe, Tesch-Römer (1993) is a seminal (if not uncontroversial) paper ...


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I am a bit amazed, but there is, at least for scent as a memory retrieval cue: Aggleton and Waskett (1999): This study determined the extent to which re-exposure to the unique combination of odours present in a museum (the Jorvik Viking Centre in York) aids the recall of a previous visit to the museum, which had typically taken place several years ...


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It would have been pretty strange for there to be multi-year gaps in Skinner's publication record, and in fact, Skinner continued to publish every year in both of those periods and beyond (Epstein, 1977). I've provided a link to a list of his publications which includes both periods, but there is no real way to say which of these publications were the 'key' ...


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Critical thinking is an ill-defined concept in the cognitive sciences, so this question most likely has as many answers as there are measures of IQ and critical thinking. An accessible introduction to the literature is available here, with the general cognitive conception of critical thinking given as follows: ... the mental activities that are typically ...


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(Unfortunately, the links appear to be broken, so I will reply to the title and bolded question.) Being forced to use a language you are unfamiliar with as a language technique is known as immersion learning. I could not find direct comparisons of adults and children, but based on evidence from educational systems, it appears that early immersion does not ...


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Claparede's Pinprick Experiment From http://www.fearexhibit.org/brain/memory/claparedes_pinprick_experiment: In 1911, a French doctor named Edouard Claparede published his observations of an amnesiac patient. Despite repeated interactions with the woman, sometimes only minutes apart, Claparede had to reintroduce himself every time he reentered the ...


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Short answer: Based on my assessment of the literature, I would say that a vague hint leaves room for retrieval practice, and will therefore likely elicit a testing effect. An obvious hint does not, and will therefore likely help recognition, but not recall. Background Spaced repetition refers to the practice of combining two well-known memory effects, ...



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