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8

Observational points: It would be straightforward to point to a person who has mastered more than one keyboard layout (e.g., some of the people here). So, yes, it is possible. From my own personal experience, I can point to my use of both Vim keyboard shortcuts for editing and regular OSX/Windows keyboard shortcuts. This is certainly possible. But I'd ...


8

One umbrella term is causal reasoning, though this is a bit broader since there are theories of causal reasoning that are not about hypothesis testing. A Google Scholar search for "causal reasoning psychology" generates several hundred thousand hits, and the first page is full of relevant papers. Getting more specific, Klayman & Ha (1987) wrote an ...


7

This will be a long post. FYI. To my knowledge, there is no evidence for back propagation in the brain. If you're interested specifically in that topic, Geoffrey Hinton (Dept. of CS @ UofT) has written about it. I'll try to focus on the biology. Some basic neurophysiology first. Neurons have a slightly negative electrical resting potential ...


5

Short answer Neurons can increase or decrease the amplitude of their response. A neuron's response strength can be regulated by adjustment of the cell-surface expression of excitatory receptors. Background First off, this question is very broad. To narrow it down I will focus on learning processes in the hippocampus involving long-term potentiation (LTP). ...


5

Quite a bit of foundational research on skill acquisition is on how people learn to send and receive morse code. I'm no expert at morse code but it seems like it shares quite a bit with binary. For example, here is a graph of letters per minute that an operator could receive as a function of weeks of practice (Bryan & Harter, 1897). A general ...


4

You basically have 2 options: Manually fire both neurons together that you want to pair - do this as many times as needed to pair them. After learning, it should be sufficient to fire only one neuron for the second neuron to fire as desired. Assign a starting weight to the connection between the neurons such that firing one will trigger the other. This ...


4

If that suffices, I can give you the classical article from the domain of language learning: Gold 1967. The basic intuition is that an infinite number of grammars could explain any given set of strings. Analogously, you can probably consider fitting a polynomial to a set of points, or instances of the inverse problem (reconstructing a source from ...


4

I'm guessing you don't want to generally increase the level of those chemicals in the brain, just in the reward-motivation area. In order to do so, you need to be rewarded and motivated, obviously. The learning need to be exciting, with feedback and reinforcement. Socializing it will help, too. There is a relatively new topic, called gameificatin, that try ...


4

Probably not. STDP has mostly been demonstrated in excitatory glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus. Considering all the other types of cells in the brain (dopaminergic, serotonergic, inhibitory, those located in cortical areas with closed plasticity windows those in the brain stem), it's erroneous to assume they all implement STDP like rules. That said, ...


3

I think your references are good examples of the way that some of this research is covered in the media (World of Warcraft is good for you! Yay!) as opposed to the academic research which is much more cautious and limited. You seem to be familiar with the 10+ years of research by Bavelier, Green and colleagues showing improvements in attention. The first ...


3

It is absolutely possible but it would be a step backwards. In the early days of computing, punched cards and punched tape were used for input and output. They contained binary in the form of punched holes. It was well known that many individuals could read directly from the tape. Here is an old picture of just that. ...


3

If you look at ancient form of writing called cuneiform, that is as close to binary code as you can get. People did learn to read/write it in ancient times, but from my understanding it was so hard that it required years of training. In terms of teaching people to "speak computer" - this is very far off mark, computer programs are extremely long and ...


3

To answer your question, you really have to specify what animal your talking about, some animals simply won't live long enough for learning to be an effective mechanism. If there are few predators, evolution will favour animals who are less vigilant about checking for potential predators generally, since this costs time (Google search vigilance behavioral ...


3

Naps may help if you are so sleepy that you can't focus in learning/training anymore. More importantly however, even a short sleep gives start for the memory consolidation process. So all the things you learned before the nap, get better shielded against the new conflicting or overlapping information in future. Especially in procedural learning (e.g. fingers ...


3

Since you excelled in math and physics, I'm going to guess that deriving information from first principles is fun, easy, and rewarding for you. And memorizing just feels wrong. Memorizing doesn't feel like "learning" because you're not deriving from first principles. You don't understand WHY the answer is correct. I can relate 100%. At least for me, the ...


2

Karl Ericsson, on whose work Malcolm Gladwell based much of his popular Outliers, has expressed on a number of occasions that the optimal amount of practice time a day is around 3-5 hours, depending on domain. There is a great deal of research in the expertise literature, but Ericsson, Krampe, Tesch-Römer (1993) is a seminal (if not uncontroversial) paper ...


2

My causal impression is that the literature on deliberate practice is a little vague about how deliberate practice differs from other forms of practice. I think it was Ericcson who distinguished between work, play, and deliberate practice. Work is to get something done, play is for enjoyment, and deliberate practice is activity completed with the goal of ...


2

The answer is yes, you can only use one at a time though since there is a transition time for your brain to recognize and switch between layouts internally. I know this because I use two different keyboard layouts regularly, they're not as different as QWERTY and DVORAK, the biggest differences are on which buttons symbols are placed (e.g. where the ? and * ...


2

From the book memory the following extract might be helpful: …, the association between a stimulus and a trace will be weakened whenever that trace is retrieved inappropriately. In effect, the bond between the cue and the target gets “punished”. For example, suppose that you try to retrieve the new password to your e-mail account. According to ...


2

When one is either learning or working with a new concept that is - complex, untangle, counter-intuitive, tedious, multi-dimensional, boring and difficult, it appears mood is altered to a lower state, very similar to that of a depressive state, however is temporary, until another concepts comes along (still new) that is simple, clear and ...


2

Almost every area of your brain would be involved in learning and understanding such high-level topics, so any perceived inability to learn a specific topic is very unlikely to be due to a particular area of your brain not working optimally. Learning new things can take a lot of time and practice. A lot of times people don't see as much improvement as they ...


2

Myelin is a greatly extended and modified plasma membrane wrapped around the nerve axon in a spiral fashion (Morell & Quarles, 1999). It typically forms on long axons to increase conduction speed and efficiency. Learning predominantly takes place in cortical areas and it is believed that it mainly depends on synaptic changes, such as long-term ...


2

Ericsson doesn't emphasize on the precise number of hours needed to be a world-level expert. What he emphasizes is the importance of deliberate practice in gaining expertise. BTW, Macnamara et al.'s meta-analytic research has some severe weaknesses. For example, Not representative : They categorized the previous researches into 5 domains -- sports, games, ...


2

Barbara Oakley, author of A Mind for Numbers, gave a talk about her findings on effective ways of learning and thinking. Some of what she said were things we've all heard before: eat right, exercise, sleep well, etc. What was more interesting to me was the research on having the right schedule for learning. How everything added up to your highest level of ...


2

If you want to learn something then investigating how the brain encodes memory, and looking at methods of enhancing these tasks is the way to go. Pop psychology books do the field little credit and are often riddled with academic inaccuracies. However if you are going to use a book I highly recommend Human Memory by the brilliant Alan Braddeley. Memory is ...


1

Several different, well-received theories of education would say yes. However, it depends on the quality of 'correct' information that is received after the answer is deemed 'incorrect'. In Jean Piaget's constructivist theory of education, it is theorized that individuals construct new knowledge through methods of assimilation and accommodation. ...


1

Ok, so since it has been two years and no-one has answered, and this is indeed a very interesting question, here is my attempt to shed some light on it. Is there any difference in brain activity while doing something you love or doing something similar you don't like? Yes, without getting too deep into specifics - there certainly difference. Primarily ...


1

Considering the classical discussion of nature versus nurture, we can assume here that part of the causality is nature (genes, epigenetics) and part is nurture (environment, upbringing). We are all born with a whole bunch of instincts, probably hundreds. Not all these instincts are in effect at a given time, and a baby of course is not going to be displaying ...



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