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7

There are (at least) two ways epigenetic traits are inherited. The important background in both cases is gene expression: there is a misconception that genes are for this or that, where the reality is that most traits come from an overlap of several genes expressing themselves in different ratios. As a simple example, consider two varieties of bird of the ...


6

Sadly (or should I be happy that Google is this awesome? Not to mention the rate of scientific progress!), all I really had to do to come up with an answer was perform a Google search for "learning transcranial magnetic stimulation". The first hit, a ScienceDaily page (Ruhr-University Bochum, 2011) page, lists some journal references (Mix, Benali, Eysel, ...


6

First, consider that those questions can potentially be answered only in animals, like mice. There is no way to test such things in humans, because methods like fMRI give resolution of $\approx$1,000,000 neurons. In order to test your hypothesis, you need resolution below the neuronal level, because what your need to see is how the connections (synapses) ...


5

Like any simple-seeming cognitive sciences question, it is important to start with a series of disclaimers. It might seem like human intelligence or intelligence more generally is an intuitive concept, but once you start to explore your intuition or look at historic definitions of intelligence, you see that intelligence is a very ill-defined and slippery ...


5

In my mind there are two main explanations of this kind of instinct behaviours. The first one is rooted in evolution. There are many examples of human innate behaviours which we can't explain e.g. when we see a lace or tape on the street we automatically jump and feel scared. Although we live in big city our brain associates the lace with a snake. It is ...


5

First, let me start by saying your topic is extremely broad. There are many reasons why something may be difficult to learn. However, the exact "difficulty associated with learning something" is known by many different terms in the scientific literature, and in particular, I have found cognitive load theory to be a particularly useful description of this. ...


5

"How accurate are people in estimating their mortality risk?" "How well can people estimate smoking's impact on their mortality?" (I grouped these.) Not accurate at all. One problem with your question is that the accuracy of predicting/estimating risk is difficult to do without the actual outcome: if a smoker predicts he will get cancer, and does develop ...


4

We are driven by this need to find answer to our questions. Many questions arise from one's mind by experiencing new events or feelings, or having to sort out a cognitive dissonance. An example of this would be the need for victims to find the guilty. When we can’t immediately gratify our desire to know, we become highly motivated to reach a concrete ...


4

Consider this, communication is more than 50% nonverbal. Studies vary (from 93% nonverbal to 75%) and the actual percentage is difficult to interpret, but it is generally accepted that most of the communication is nonverbal. That being said, a book is only written word and content, whereas a lecture is dynamic, versatile, and incorporates much of the ...


4

Unanswered questions don't necessarily cause cognitive dissonance. Need for closure varies across individuals; some of us don't mind having some (or even many) unanswered questions much at all. One also moves forward along a path while "looping," and that path isn't necessarily infinite; in fact, it probably isn't for any mortal, practically speaking. For ...


4

Firstly, the matter of lifestyle is probably a significant factor. Someone who is an alcoholic their whole life and never tries or learns new things is going to have a different outcome that somebody who is still learning new things and exercising and eating healthy. That being said, lifestyles equal, there's at least two factors in age-associated ...


4

I think you have three core questions: What is true intelligence and how can it be measured? To what extent does school performance correlate with true intelligence? To what extent does school performance cause true intelligence to change? Intelligence tests provide the best known means to measure general cognitive ability. There is a huge literature on ...


3

You are looking at learning from the wrong direction. A child does not learn a word. A child learns about a detail of the world and the word that is used to denote it. The word comes with the experience and is only attached to that experience as a label. What the child learns is the world. Adult learning is mostly similar. You either observe or experience ...


3

TL;DR summary: gore and your examples thereof belong to even broader classes of stimuli that activate a number of different aversion and defense systems. To some extent, no one really knows why, and some of the most appealing answers may come from somewhat unfalsifiable theories. Building on @caseyr547's answer, disgust occurs somewhat automatically when ...


3

Yes, cognitive psychology incorporates the study of learning. You can see this reflected in other sources that provide general descriptions of cognitive psychology, e.g.: http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/f/cogpsych.htm http://psych.rutgers.edu/co http://infed.org/mobi/the-cognitive-orientation-to-learning/ I'm not recommending these as ...


3

vand den Bos et al (2002) van den Bos et al (2002) summarises research over various ages. They reported: The reading task was to read in 1 min, as fast and accurately as possible, the unique and unrepeated words of a stan- dardized word-reading test. Results indicate that word-reading speed and naming speeds of colors and pictures continue to ...


3

Both the primacy and recency effects may also be referred to as parts of the serial position effect. Wikipedia has a list of memory biases you may want to peruse. Most entries are potentially relevant: Cryptomnesia: a form of misattribution where a memory is mistaken for imagination, because there is no subjective experience of it being a ...


3

What is the effect of completing "brain training"? Is there any evidence for domain general benefits to cognitive functioning that extend beyond the specific task practiced? Brain training at the very least improves skill levels in the domain being trained. That is now well established. The big challenge is of course to create forms of training ...


3

I think that you focus this question in the wrong way. There is no place in the brain where the "instructions" are stored. The brain don't need "know" how it works to work. The way in that the brain works is an emergence from the structure and the biological dynamics. All of this is based in all the layers of biological computation ...


3

The cortex and more of the higher centers are involved in a process when we first learn it. For example it has been tested that basketball players can improve by simply thinking about shooting baskets and not actually doing it. Prior to puberty a lot of neurological " pruning" takes place. This was eloquently discussed in Satinovers book " The Quantum Brain" ...


3

This type of knowledge is known as "semantic memory"; a type of "declarative memory". We don't yet know where semantic memory is stored in the brain, although there is evidence that hippocampal and/or parahippocampal structures are required to store semantic memory. The fine details of exactly what a "memory" is in terms of neurobiology, where and how it is ...


2

If you read Ebbinghaus' article carefully, you will note that in Chapter III. The Method of Investigation, Section 13. Establishment of the Most Constant Experimental Conditions Possible, Ebbinghaus gives the following third of seven rules "for the process of memorising": 3 . Since it is practically impossible to speak continuously without variation of ...


2

Here's an interesting abstract from a relevant paper I found a while back: This paper proposes a new theoretical model of curiosity that incorporates the neuroscience of "wanting" and "liking", which are two systems hypothesised to underlie motivation and affective experience for a broad class of appetites. In developing the new model, the paper ...


2

'Reinforcement' is anything that increases the chances that an organism with repeat a behavior. When you are teaching a behavior, in the beginning, eliciting behavior takes a lot of reinforcement. So, for example, if you want to teach you dog to come to you every time you go to the back door, you feed him a cookie when you go to the back door. After a while ...


2

From experience and some knowledge gathered from all over the place, yes and no. For example, if you want to do two things that are both mind-engaging, you'll probably end up doing both sloppily, or one much better than the other. But if one task is mundane and other mind engaging, like listening to music and doing math problem, or listening to a lecture and ...


2

I have to agree with @NickStauner - it sounds like you (as most people do; television is a culprit here) have a relatively rose-tinted view of people with a lower latent inhibition. This is not an answer, this is an anecdote. First off, a person's 'level of latent inhibition' will fluctuate. I have low latent inhibition (if you read this - yep, that's a ...


2

Low latent inhibition is not an ideal state...Wikipedia lists several potential problems including attentional and emotional dysregulation, psychosis, and negative emotionality. Wikipedia also suggests that intelligence may moderate effects on well-being, such that more highly intelligent people could cope with stronger stimulation more effectively, and ...


2

There are several commonly used measures of Short Term Memory (STM). Memory span: lists of items are presented sequentially and the participant has to repeat each list after it ends. The lists become progressively longer. The most common variant is called Digit span, in which the items in the lists are spoken digits. Another common variant is called ...



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