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8

One umbrella term is causal reasoning, though this is a bit broader since there are theories of causal reasoning that are not about hypothesis testing. A Google Scholar search for "causal reasoning psychology" generates several hundred thousand hits, and the first page is full of relevant papers. Getting more specific, Klayman & Ha (1987) wrote an ...


7

This will be a long post. FYI. To my knowledge, there is no evidence for back propagation in the brain. If you're interested specifically in that topic, Geoffrey Hinton (Dept. of CS @ UofT) has written about it. I'll try to focus on the biology. Some basic neurophysiology first. Neurons have a slightly negative electrical resting potential (...


5

Quite a bit of foundational research on skill acquisition is on how people learn to send and receive morse code. I'm no expert at morse code but it seems like it shares quite a bit with binary. For example, here is a graph of letters per minute that an operator could receive as a function of weeks of practice (Bryan & Harter, 1897). A general ...


5

Short answer Neurons can increase or decrease the amplitude of their response. A neuron's response strength can be regulated by adjustment of the cell-surface expression of excitatory receptors. Background First off, this question is very broad. To narrow it down I will focus on learning processes in the hippocampus involving long-term potentiation (LTP). ...


5

ACT-R can best be summarized with this (tiny but more recent) graph: ACT-R is a cognitive architecture that tries to explain as much of human behavior as possible with as little rules as possible. It works at a high level of abstraction and came down to a list of so-called "modules", each having its own functions. The exact mechanisms of each of these ...


4

I'm guessing you don't want to generally increase the level of those chemicals in the brain, just in the reward-motivation area. In order to do so, you need to be rewarded and motivated, obviously. The learning need to be exciting, with feedback and reinforcement. Socializing it will help, too. There is a relatively new topic, called gameificatin, that try ...


4

If that suffices, I can give you the classical article from the domain of language learning: Gold 1967. The basic intuition is that an infinite number of grammars could explain any given set of strings. Analogously, you can probably consider fitting a polynomial to a set of points, or instances of the inverse problem (reconstructing a source from ...


4

Probably not. STDP has mostly been demonstrated in excitatory glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus. Considering all the other types of cells in the brain (dopaminergic, serotonergic, inhibitory, those located in cortical areas with closed plasticity windows those in the brain stem), it's erroneous to assume they all implement STDP like rules. That said, ...


4

According to "Motor Skills Are Strengthened through Reconsolidation" (available through SciHub) adding variability to practice sessions increases learning speed. In the paper, patients were directed to move a cursor on a screen to certain targets via pinch force. Patients who's pinch force mapping was modified during each trial ended up learning faster and ...


3

Almost every area of your brain would be involved in learning and understanding such high-level topics, so any perceived inability to learn a specific topic is very unlikely to be due to a particular area of your brain not working optimally. Learning new things can take a lot of time and practice. A lot of times people don't see as much improvement as they ...


3

Myelin is a greatly extended and modified plasma membrane wrapped around the nerve axon in a spiral fashion (Morell & Quarles, 1999). It typically forms on long axons to increase conduction speed and efficiency. Learning predominantly takes place in cortical areas and it is believed that it mainly depends on synaptic changes, such as long-term ...


3

I think your references are good examples of the way that some of this research is covered in the media (World of Warcraft is good for you! Yay!) as opposed to the academic research which is much more cautious and limited. You seem to be familiar with the 10+ years of research by Bavelier, Green and colleagues showing improvements in attention. The first ...


3

To answer your question, you really have to specify what animal your talking about, some animals simply won't live long enough for learning to be an effective mechanism. If there are few predators, evolution will favour animals who are less vigilant about checking for potential predators generally, since this costs time (Google search vigilance behavioral ...


3

It is absolutely possible but it would be a step backwards. In the early days of computing, punched cards and punched tape were used for input and output. They contained binary in the form of punched holes. It was well known that many individuals could read directly from the tape. Here is an old picture of just that. http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnnnext/dam/...


3

Of course, the type of data you use depends lot on what your model purports to explain. The way i take your question, you are looking for straight up artificial classification learning experiments. Is this correct? If so, John Kruschke has published several of his most important datasets on his website. I have often used these in my model testing. His '93 ...


3

If you look at ancient form of writing called cuneiform, that is as close to binary code as you can get. People did learn to read/write it in ancient times, but from my understanding it was so hard that it required years of training. In terms of teaching people to "speak computer" - this is very far off mark, computer programs are extremely long and ...


3

Since you excelled in math and physics, I'm going to guess that deriving information from first principles is fun, easy, and rewarding for you. And memorizing just feels wrong. Memorizing doesn't feel like "learning" because you're not deriving from first principles. You don't understand WHY the answer is correct. I can relate 100%. At least for me, the ...


3

Synapses likely change their strengths based on a form of spike-timing-dependent plasticity. Is this true for all types of synapses in all parts of the human brain? No, not all. For example, there is frequency-dependent-plasticity, where the firing frequency of the pre-synaptic cell will change the synaptic strength. In Nikolaev, et. al. (2013), ...


3

In the paper "Control of automated behavior: insights from the discrete sequence production task" a task similar to piano playing is discussed. The task, shown in the figure below, involves a user pressing a key corresponding to visual input. One of the most interesting results from the paper is, as shown below, after learning, the response times of ...


2

Ericsson doesn't emphasize on the precise number of hours needed to be a world-level expert. What he emphasizes is the importance of deliberate practice in gaining expertise. BTW, Macnamara et al.'s meta-analytic research has some severe weaknesses. For example, Not representative : They categorized the previous researches into 5 domains -- sports, games, ...


2

Short answer Generally, a few months of active, guided training. Background Based on an article from a guide cane instructor who is a cane traveler himself, I can answer the question as follows: First off - it depends on at least three important variables; The student's background; The student's aptitude; the amount of time available to the student. ...


2

Yes, there have been a number of studies on language development in children with congenital profound visual impairment (PVI) over the years. Selma Fraiberg first described differences in early development, specifically later emergence of personal pronouns compared to typically sighted children [1]. More recent studies found that the vocabulary development ...


2

From the book memory the following extract might be helpful: …, the association between a stimulus and a trace will be weakened whenever that trace is retrieved inappropriately. In effect, the bond between the cue and the target gets “punished”. For example, suppose that you try to retrieve the new password to your e-mail account. According to ...


2

When one is either learning or working with a new concept that is - complex, untangle, counter-intuitive, tedious, multi-dimensional, boring and difficult, it appears mood is altered to a lower state, very similar to that of a depressive state, however is temporary, until another concepts comes along (still new) that is simple, clear and straight ...


2

Barbara Oakley, author of A Mind for Numbers, gave a talk about her findings on effective ways of learning and thinking. Some of what she said were things we've all heard before: eat right, exercise, sleep well, etc. What was more interesting to me was the research on having the right schedule for learning. How everything added up to your highest level of ...


2

If you want to learn something then investigating how the brain encodes memory, and looking at methods of enhancing these tasks is the way to go. Pop psychology books do the field little credit and are often riddled with academic inaccuracies. However if you are going to use a book I highly recommend Human Memory by the brilliant Alan Braddeley. Memory is ...


1

Considering the classical discussion of nature versus nurture, we can assume here that part of the causality is nature (genes, epigenetics) and part is nurture (environment, upbringing). We are all born with a whole bunch of instincts, probably hundreds. Not all these instincts are in effect at a given time, and a baby of course is not going to be displaying ...


1

A big assumption here is that diffuse mode is something you can activate at any time. Where as most teachers on the subject view it as a process that activates through inattention (think daydreaming). Inattention can be difficult with work, commute, home, and family as sources of stress or focus. Another is that focused mode is only for unique ...


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see Lisman, J. E. and Otmakhova, N. A. (2001), Storage, recall, and novelty detection of sequences by the hippocampus: Elaborating on the SOCRATIC model to account for normal and aberrant effects of dopamine. Hippocampus, 11: 551–568. doi: 10.1002/hipo.1071: http://wwww.bio.brandeis.edu/lismanlab/pdf/socratic.pdf for one proposed mechanism. in short, local ...


1

I think you've got a reasonable handle on why learning vocabulary in a single, fixed order is probably not a great idea. You may also be interested in what is called context-dependent memory, where you recall things best in a context similar to that which you learned those things in (shitty sentence, but you know what I mean).



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