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7

There are (at least) two ways epigenetic traits are inherited. The important background in both cases is gene expression: there is a misconception that genes are for this or that, where the reality is that most traits come from an overlap of several genes expressing themselves in different ratios. As a simple example, consider two varieties of bird of the ...


6

First, consider that those questions can potentially be answered only in animals, like mice. There is no way to test such things in humans, because methods like fMRI give resolution of $\approx$1,000,000 neurons. In order to test your hypothesis, you need resolution below the neuronal level, because what your need to see is how the connections (synapses) ...


6

Sadly (or should I be happy that Google is this awesome? Not to mention the rate of scientific progress!), all I really had to do to come up with an answer was perform a Google search for "learning transcranial magnetic stimulation". The first hit, a ScienceDaily page (Ruhr-University Bochum, 2011) page, lists some journal references (Mix, Benali, Eysel, ...


5

First, let me start by saying your topic is extremely broad. There are many reasons why something may be difficult to learn. However, the exact "difficulty associated with learning something" is known by many different terms in the scientific literature, and in particular, I have found cognitive load theory to be a particularly useful description of this. ...


5

Like any simple-seeming cognitive sciences question, it is important to start with a series of disclaimers. It might seem like human intelligence or intelligence more generally is an intuitive concept, but once you start to explore your intuition or look at historic definitions of intelligence, you see that intelligence is a very ill-defined and slippery ...


5

In my mind there are two main explanations of this kind of instinct behaviours. The first one is rooted in evolution. There are many examples of human innate behaviours which we can't explain e.g. when we see a lace or tape on the street we automatically jump and feel scared. Although we live in big city our brain associates the lace with a snake. It is ...


5

"How accurate are people in estimating their mortality risk?" "How well can people estimate smoking's impact on their mortality?" (I grouped these.) Not accurate at all. One problem with your question is that the accuracy of predicting/estimating risk is difficult to do without the actual outcome: if a smoker predicts he will get cancer, and does develop ...


4

This is of course a big question and I don't believe that there is a definite answer to it. A very thorough investigation of this matter comes from Rogers and McClelland (2004), who have a developed a parallel distributed theory of acquisition, representation and use of human semantic knowledge. As the name implies, this effort comes from the realm of ...


4

Unanswered questions don't necessarily cause cognitive dissonance. Need for closure varies across individuals; some of us don't mind having some (or even many) unanswered questions much at all. One also moves forward along a path while "looping," and that path isn't necessarily infinite; in fact, it probably isn't for any mortal, practically speaking. For ...


4

We are driven by this need to find answer to our questions. Many questions arise from one's mind by experiencing new events or feelings, or having to sort out a cognitive dissonance. An example of this would be the need for victims to find the guilty. When we can’t immediately gratify our desire to know, we become highly motivated to reach a concrete ...


4

Consider this, communication is more than 50% nonverbal. Studies vary (from 93% nonverbal to 75%) and the actual percentage is difficult to interpret, but it is generally accepted that most of the communication is nonverbal. That being said, a book is only written word and content, whereas a lecture is dynamic, versatile, and incorporates much of the ...


4

Firstly, the matter of lifestyle is probably a significant factor. Someone who is an alcoholic their whole life and never tries or learns new things is going to have a different outcome that somebody who is still learning new things and exercising and eating healthy. That being said, lifestyles equal, there's at least two factors in age-associated ...


3

You are looking at learning from the wrong direction. A child does not learn a word. A child learns about a detail of the world and the word that is used to denote it. The word comes with the experience and is only attached to that experience as a label. What the child learns is the world. Adult learning is mostly similar. You either observe or experience ...


3

TL;DR summary: gore and your examples thereof belong to even broader classes of stimuli that activate a number of different aversion and defense systems. To some extent, no one really knows why, and some of the most appealing answers may come from somewhat unfalsifiable theories. Building on @caseyr547's answer, disgust occurs somewhat automatically when ...


3

Yes, cognitive psychology incorporates the study of learning. You can see this reflected in other sources that provide general descriptions of cognitive psychology, e.g.: http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/f/cogpsych.htm http://psych.rutgers.edu/co http://infed.org/mobi/the-cognitive-orientation-to-learning/ I'm not recommending these as ...


3

vand den Bos et al (2002) van den Bos et al (2002) summarises research over various ages. They reported: The reading task was to read in 1 min, as fast and accurately as possible, the unique and unrepeated words of a stan- dardized word-reading test. Results indicate that word-reading speed and naming speeds of colors and pictures continue to ...


3

Both the primacy and recency effects may also be referred to as parts of the serial position effect. Wikipedia has a list of memory biases you may want to peruse. Most entries are potentially relevant: Cryptomnesia: a form of misattribution where a memory is mistaken for imagination, because there is no subjective experience of it being a ...


3

The cortex and more of the higher centers are involved in a process when we first learn it. For example it has been tested that basketball players can improve by simply thinking about shooting baskets and not actually doing it. Prior to puberty a lot of neurological " pruning" takes place. This was eloquently discussed in Satinovers book " The Quantum Brain" ...


3

This type of knowledge is known as "semantic memory"; a type of "declarative memory". We don't yet know where semantic memory is stored in the brain, although there is evidence that hippocampal and/or parahippocampal structures are required to store semantic memory. The fine details of exactly what a "memory" is in terms of neurobiology, where and how it is ...


2

The game mechanics playdeck from tech startup SCVNGR gives 50 great starting points. Perhaps more directly relevant to the SE CogSci audience is the Mental Notes project, which aims to "bring a little psychology to Web design [...] each card describes one insight into human behavior and suggests ways to apply this to the design of Web sites, Web apps, and ...


2

For starters, I think it's a good idea to provide rewards for both students and mentors. As an example: Mentors could receive rewards for answering questions by students, while students receive rewards for solving exercises. Furthermore, the mentor should be able to give rewards for good questions etc. Actually, it's quite a bit like Stack Exchange, if you ...


2

This LOP diagram explains it pretty well, acoustic information is remembered moderately well as it has moderate processing done on it to help you remember it, but as you can see, semantic is the best way to remember stuff, something is semantic if it's understood well or has meaning to you, so the best way to learn it is it to make sure that you understand ...


2

Here's an interesting abstract from a relevant paper I found a while back: This paper proposes a new theoretical model of curiosity that incorporates the neuroscience of "wanting" and "liking", which are two systems hypothesised to underlie motivation and affective experience for a broad class of appetites. In developing the new model, the paper ...


2

'Reinforcement' is anything that increases the chances that an organism with repeat a behavior. When you are teaching a behavior, in the beginning, eliciting behavior takes a lot of reinforcement. So, for example, if you want to teach you dog to come to you every time you go to the back door, you feed him a cookie when you go to the back door. After a while ...


2

If you read Ebbinghaus' article carefully, you will note that in Chapter III. The Method of Investigation, Section 13. Establishment of the Most Constant Experimental Conditions Possible, Ebbinghaus gives the following third of seven rules "for the process of memorising": 3 . Since it is practically impossible to speak continuously without variation of ...


2

@JeromyAnglim's answer to your linked question says most of what I'd have wanted to say in response to your original (title) question. Difficulty of any given question in terms of item response theory is generally defined as the probability of answering it correctly at a given level of a (often latent) relevant skill. This definition of difficulty can be ...



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