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8

One umbrella term is causal reasoning, though this is a bit broader since there are theories of causal reasoning that are not about hypothesis testing. A Google Scholar search for "causal reasoning psychology" generates several hundred thousand hits, and the first page is full of relevant papers. Getting more specific, Klayman & Ha (1987) wrote an ...


7

Observational points: It would be straightforward to point to a person who has mastered more than one keyboard layout (e.g., some of the people here). So, yes, it is possible. From my own personal experience, I can point to my use of both Vim keyboard shortcuts for editing and regular OSX/Windows keyboard shortcuts. This is certainly possible. But I'd ...


7

This will be a long post. FYI. To my knowledge, there is no evidence for back propagation in the brain. If you're interested specifically in that topic, Geoffrey Hinton (Dept. of CS @ UofT) has written about it. I'll try to focus on the biology. Some basic neurophysiology first. Neurons have a slightly negative electrical resting potential ...


6

As per the comments to the question, human research observing this distinction does exist. CHCH possibly alludes to an article by Gläscher, Daw, Dayan and O'Doherty (2010) which concisely defines the difference between model-free learning and model-based learning: Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations (“states”) and ...


5

Short answer Neurons can increase or decrease the amplitude of their response. A neuron's response strength can be regulated by adjustment of the cell-surface expression of excitatory receptors. Background First off, this question is very broad. To narrow it down I will focus on learning processes in the hippocampus involving long-term potentiation (LTP). ...


5

Short answer: No. Long answer: The need for sleep is not a function of information received in any meaningful sense. Memory consolidation and forgetting processes are not thought of in terms of energy expense and conservation by any current cognitive science models, and lack of sleep will not necessarily cause you to go mad or die as such. Both are active ...


5

Quite a bit of foundational research on skill acquisition is on how people learn to send and receive morse code. I'm no expert at morse code but it seems like it shares quite a bit with binary. For example, here is a graph of letters per minute that an operator could receive as a function of weeks of practice (Bryan & Harter, 1897). A general ...


4

You basically have 2 options: Manually fire both neurons together that you want to pair - do this as many times as needed to pair them. After learning, it should be sufficient to fire only one neuron for the second neuron to fire as desired. Assign a starting weight to the connection between the neurons such that firing one will trigger the other. This ...


4

I suspect you are thinking of Karmiloff-Smith's work. Here's an excerpt from an '88 article almost exactly matching the description. Children were asked to balance a series of blocks on a narrow metal support. Some of the blocks had their weight evenly distributed and balanced at their geometric centre. Others had been drilled with lead in one end ...


4

I'm guessing you don't want to generally increase the level of those chemicals in the brain, just in the reward-motivation area. In order to do so, you need to be rewarded and motivated, obviously. The learning need to be exciting, with feedback and reinforcement. Socializing it will help, too. There is a relatively new topic, called gameificatin, that try ...


4

Short answer: Based on my assessment of the literature, I would say that a vague hint leaves room for retrieval practice, and will therefore likely elicit a testing effect. An obvious hint does not, and will therefore likely help recognition, but not recall. Background Spaced repetition refers to the practice of combining two well-known memory effects, ...


4

Critical thinking is an ill-defined concept in the cognitive sciences, so this question most likely has as many answers as there are measures of IQ and critical thinking. An accessible introduction to the literature is available here, with the general cognitive conception of critical thinking given as follows: ... the mental activities that are typically ...


4

If that suffices, I can give you the classical article from the domain of language learning: Gold 1967. The basic intuition is that an infinite number of grammars could explain any given set of strings. Analogously, you can probably consider fitting a polynomial to a set of points, or instances of the inverse problem (reconstructing a source from ...


3

To answer your question, you really have to specify what animal your talking about, some animals simply won't live long enough for learning to be an effective mechanism. If there are few predators, evolution will favour animals who are less vigilant about checking for potential predators generally, since this costs time (Google search vigilance behavioral ...


3

It is absolutely possible but it would be a step backwards. In the early days of computing, punched cards and punched tape were used for input and output. They contained binary in the form of punched holes. It was well known that many individuals could read directly from the tape. Here is an old picture of just that. ...


3

I think your references are good examples of the way that some of this research is covered in the media (World of Warcraft is good for you! Yay!) as opposed to the academic research which is much more cautious and limited. You seem to be familiar with the 10+ years of research by Bavelier, Green and colleagues showing improvements in attention. The first ...


3

If you look at ancient form of writing called cuneiform, that is as close to binary code as you can get. People did learn to read/write it in ancient times, but from my understanding it was so hard that it required years of training. In terms of teaching people to "speak computer" - this is very far off mark, computer programs are extremely long and ...


3

The answer is more involved than it seems. Expertise research programmes, including Ericsson's line, has tended to blend quantitative and qualitative research methods (e.g., case studies, talk-aloud protocol, etc.), and there is a veritable host of critiques and qualifications that apply. For the scope of this answer, I will therefore try to err on the side ...


3

Naps may help if you are so sleepy that you can't focus in learning/training anymore. More importantly however, even a short sleep gives start for the memory consolidation process. So all the things you learned before the nap, get better shielded against the new conflicting or overlapping information in future. Especially in procedural learning (e.g. fingers ...


3

I actually think this is a bit tougher than it sounds because of how broad cogsci is as a field. Not too long ago, I asked a similar question on twitter; to this end, here are the podcasts that I now regularly follow: 99% Invisible - A show about design, and the factors influencing it. Lexicon Valley - Covers language from "pet peeves, syntax and etymology ...


3

S-shaped learning curves As per A Umar Mukthar's comment, the phenomenon is known as an S-shaped learning curve. They have been a known phenomenon in psychology for many decades, and were originally attributed to trial-and-error learning sets (Harlow, 1949). Harlow defined a learning set in the following manner: The monkeys learn how to learn individual ...


2

Karl Ericsson, on whose work Malcolm Gladwell based much of his popular Outliers, has expressed on a number of occasions that the optimal amount of practice time a day is around 3-5 hours, depending on domain. There is a great deal of research in the expertise literature, but Ericsson, Krampe, Tesch-Römer (1993) is a seminal (if not uncontroversial) paper ...


2

I'll give you an example of a famous mathematician who developed his mathematical research in isolation. Arguably If someone manages to achieve a high level of skill in solitude for such an extraordinary difficult discipline as mathematics I would deny the need to have a teacher (in any case) to master a skill which is less difficult than be an expert in ...


2

I can't yet comment, unfortunately, but for the answers to your questions I have to refer you back to your link. and to the references listed in the article. Along with this do a little exercise with a family member or a friend, but preferably someone who is not aware of your studying of Geography. Both of you do the following: Write down 5 cities from ...


2

There has been a lot of research into this topic in the recent years. My understanding is influenced by the following : 1. The Talent Code by Daniel Coyle. 2. Mastery by Robert Greene. 3. The Mundanity of Excellence.4. Why Skills trump Passion by Cal Newport. The best thing for you to do would be to read these for yourself. CHOOSE THE CHALLENGE : This ...


2

The answer is yes, you can only use one at a time though since there is a transition time for your brain to recognize and switch between layouts internally. I know this because I use two different keyboard layouts regularly, they're not as different as QWERTY and DVORAK, the biggest differences are on which buttons symbols are placed (e.g. where the ? and * ...


2

My causal impression is that the literature on deliberate practice is a little vague about how deliberate practice differs from other forms of practice. I think it was Ericcson who distinguished between work, play, and deliberate practice. Work is to get something done, play is for enjoyment, and deliberate practice is activity completed with the goal of ...



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