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7

There are (at least) two ways epigenetic traits are inherited. The important background in both cases is gene expression: there is a misconception that genes are for this or that, where the reality is that most traits come from an overlap of several genes expressing themselves in different ratios. As a simple example, consider two varieties of bird of the ...


5

In my mind there are two main explanations of this kind of instinct behaviours. The first one is rooted in evolution. There are many examples of human innate behaviours which we can't explain e.g. when we see a lace or tape on the street we automatically jump and feel scared. Although we live in big city our brain associates the lace with a snake. It is ...


5

"How accurate are people in estimating their mortality risk?" "How well can people estimate smoking's impact on their mortality?" (I grouped these.) Not accurate at all. One problem with your question is that the accuracy of predicting/estimating risk is difficult to do without the actual outcome: if a smoker predicts he will get cancer, and does develop ...


5

Here are the ones I know about; there's much more about neuroscience than, say, theoretical or computational cognitive science, but a lot of the neuroscience podcasts cover cognitive science indirectly or partially. All in the Mind--it's also neuroscience and mental health stuff (a lot of mental health stuff) Brain Science Podcast--books about and ...


4

Firstly, the matter of lifestyle is probably a significant factor. Someone who is an alcoholic their whole life and never tries or learns new things is going to have a different outcome that somebody who is still learning new things and exercising and eating healthy. That being said, lifestyles equal, there's at least two factors in age-associated ...


4

What is the effect of completing "brain training"? Is there any evidence for domain general benefits to cognitive functioning that extend beyond the specific task practiced? Brain training at the very least improves skill levels in the domain being trained. That is now well established. The big challenge is of course to create forms of training ...


4

I suspect you are thinking of Karmiloff-Smith's work. Here's an excerpt from an '88 article almost exactly matching the description. Children were asked to balance a series of blocks on a narrow metal support. Some of the blocks had their weight evenly distributed and balanced at their geometric centre. Others had been drilled with lead in one end ...


4

The cortex and more of the higher centers are involved in a process when we first learn it. For example it has been tested that basketball players can improve by simply thinking about shooting baskets and not actually doing it. Prior to puberty a lot of neurological " pruning" takes place. This was eloquently discussed in Satinovers book " The Quantum Brain" ...


3

The answer is more involved than it seems. Expertise research programmes, including Ericsson's line, has tended to blend quantitative and qualitative research methods (e.g., case studies, talk-aloud protocol, etc.), and there is a veritable host of critiques and qualifications that apply. For the scope of this answer, I will therefore try to err on the side ...


3

In response to a related question about learning styles, I provided this answer. In that answer, I quote Pashler et al (2009) which is generally critical of the learning styles literature. I quote Pashler et al where they state: Our review of the literature disclosed ample evidence that children and adults will, if asked, express preferences about how ...


3

I think you have three core questions: What is true intelligence and how can it be measured? To what extent does school performance correlate with true intelligence? To what extent does school performance cause true intelligence to change? Intelligence tests provide the best known means to measure general cognitive ability. There is a huge literature on ...


3

Both the primacy and recency effects may also be referred to as parts of the serial position effect. Wikipedia has a list of memory biases you may want to peruse. Most entries are potentially relevant: Cryptomnesia: a form of misattribution where a memory is mistaken for imagination, because there is no subjective experience of it being a ...


3

This type of knowledge is known as "semantic memory"; a type of "declarative memory". We don't yet know where semantic memory is stored in the brain, although there is evidence that hippocampal and/or parahippocampal structures are required to store semantic memory. The fine details of exactly what a "memory" is in terms of neurobiology, where and how it is ...


3

Coaching is not as well researched and not as well conceptualized as for example psychotherapy. There are no clear and distinct schools and approaches, especially since many certifying institutes require by contract that the coaches they train must not disclose the copyrighted methods to third parties. Generally, literature on coaching and the reports of ...


2

I'm not sure if personal relevance of data has been studied directly, but this factor seems related to depth of processing [Wikipedia link A], which improves memory encoding. I'm not aware of any research on an interaction between depth of processing [Wikipedia link B] and whether learning is spaced (as an experimentally controlled variable). I hope others ...


2

I have to agree with @NickStauner - it sounds like you (as most people do; television is a culprit here) have a relatively rose-tinted view of people with a lower latent inhibition. This is not an answer, this is an anecdote. First off, a person's 'level of latent inhibition' will fluctuate. I have low latent inhibition (if you read this - yep, that's a ...


2

Low latent inhibition is not an ideal state...Wikipedia lists several potential problems including attentional and emotional dysregulation, psychosis, and negative emotionality. Wikipedia also suggests that intelligence may moderate effects on well-being, such that more highly intelligent people could cope with stronger stimulation more effectively, and ...


2

There are several commonly used measures of Short Term Memory (STM). Memory span: lists of items are presented sequentially and the participant has to repeat each list after it ends. The lists become progressively longer. The most common variant is called Digit span, in which the items in the lists are spoken digits. Another common variant is called ...


2

I think that you focus this question in the wrong way. There is no place in the brain where the "instructions" are stored. The brain don't need "know" how it works to work. The way in that the brain works is an emergence from the structure and the biological dynamics. All of this is based in all the layers of biological computation ...


2

The term I was looking for is "concurrent activities". Some research in the domain of hierarchical learning has been done in this domain by Rohanimanesh and Mahadevan. According to this literature review on hierarchical learning, basically what they did was determine how multiple tasks can be managed without interfering with one another and how they should ...


2

We should not confuse the psychological terminology of consciousness, the subconscious and the unconscious with the lay meaning of activities being performed consciously or subconsciously. The distinction between "conscious" learning and "subconscious" acquisition of linguistic knowledge goes back to the Monitor Model that linguist Stephen Krashen developed ...


2

The time required to learn Braille may vary depending on factors such as age, partial/full and early/late blindness and individual differences (see here), but what has come out of studies such as this is that visual deprivation appears to speed up Braille learning. In the study I cite, all subjects received the same degree of training, but individuals who ...


2

Short answer: No. Long answer: The need for sleep is not a function of information received in any meaningful sense. Memory consolidation and forgetting processes are not thought of in terms of energy expense and conservation by any current cognitive science models, and lack of sleep will not necessarily cause you to go mad or die as such. Both are active ...


2

A related question is whether taking notes by hand or by typing is more effective. Mueller & Oppenheimer (2014) found that taking notes by hand is more effective, and claim that this is because taking notes on a laptop results in shallow processing of the material. I suspect that the most effective strategy in this case is to print out the slides ...


2

Children, when they learn their first language, do not learn this language, rather they "learn the world". An adult spends some time of his day on learning a (second) language, and much time on other tasks. For an adult, the two (or more) activities are mostly separate. For a child learning a first language, learning this language is inseparably entwined ...


1

Once an individual moves to another country, and avoids using their native language, all the things you are asking about will happen: Those who have learned a second language are guaranteed to consciously think of words and their corresponding meaning in your native language or vice versa. I'd say only those who are in the process of learning a new ...



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