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As per the comments to the question, human research observing this distinction does exist. CHCH possibly alludes to an article by Gläscher, Daw, Dayan and O'Doherty (2010) which concisely defines the difference between model-free learning and model-based learning: Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations (“states”) and ...


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The answer is more involved than it seems. Expertise research programmes, including Ericsson's line, has tended to blend quantitative and qualitative research methods (e.g., case studies, talk-aloud protocol, etc.), and there is a veritable host of critiques and qualifications that apply. For the scope of this answer, I will therefore try to err on the side ...


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S-shaped learning curves As per A Umar Mukthar's comment, the phenomenon is known as an S-shaped learning curve. They have been a known phenomenon in psychology for many decades, and were originally attributed to trial-and-error learning sets (Harlow, 1949). Harlow defined a learning set in the following manner: The monkeys learn how to learn individual ...


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I was unable to find this in a scientific paper, and it is not clear from the sources I did locate that this work was ever actually published. However, I found other sources that reference this work and several similar studies comparing humans to rats. The study you mention is also referenced briefly in Tetlock's (2005) book on political judgment; a ...


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I'll give you an example of a famous mathematician who developed his mathematical research in isolation. Arguably If someone manages to achieve a high level of skill in solitude for such an extraordinary difficult discipline as mathematics I would deny the need to have a teacher (in any case) to master a skill which is less difficult than be an expert in ...



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