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19

I think you have to be careful with the proposition that "rewards do not increase performance on non-rudimentary tasks". The experiments that Dan Pink cites involve experiments where participants are in a room and are supervised by an experimenter while they complete a task. This social pressure by the experimenter may well be enough for participants to be ...


15

Many single item measures of mood can be found in the literature. Those two are based on the idea that affect is bidimensional and that one's current state can be reported using a grid: Russell, J.A., Weiss, A., & Mendelsohn, G.A. (1989). Affect Grid: A Single-Item Scale of Pleasure and Arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57 (3), ...


14

In short, no. Perry's essay is amusing and compelling, but incomplete. Procrastination is an epiphenomenon of motivation, an active area of research which has some models relevant to the study of procrastination, such as: Hyperbolic Discounting Temporal Motivation Theory Rational Choice Theory Expectancy Theory Perry emphasizes task importance as the ...


14

There is a fundamental concept in motivation illustrating this effect- a bunch of studies have been done which I don't have the time of digging up citations for now, but the central findings are as follows: If the incentive (external reward) for a non-trivial task becomes too salient, the individual is driven to complete the task for that reward and will ...


11

Any review in this area should start with Peltzman's 1975 JPE article. Peltzman was writing a few years after the 1968 Motor Vehicle Safety Act (U.S.) went into effect. The act required, among other things, padded dash boards and seat belts. He says (p. 717): The one result of this study that can be put forward most confidently is that auto ...


10

A theory which I believe explains this is the ground-breaking work that Carol Dweck has done on mindsets and how they relate to performance. To recap, People can have either a fixed mindset where they view abilities as fixed, are more driven by performance goals and use helpless strategies when confronted with tasks beyond their capabilities. If given a ...


10

I don't know of a study that tries to answer your specific question but you might want to have a look at illusory superiority, "a cognitive bias that causes people to overestimate their positive qualities and abilities and to underestimate their negative qualities, relative to others" (wikipedia). I can especially recommend the paper by Dunning and Kruger ...


10

If you take a look at games like minecraft, they have quite a lot of players who do not work (students, college students, etc). These people first mine thousands of blocks, then rearrange them in a creative way. There's absolutely no need to do so, it is entirely voluntary, yet people end up moving hundreds of thousands of blocks to do something creative or ...


9

This is a part answer to your question and it doesn't come from occupational psychology, but from expertise research. Findings from Expertise Research In their seminal paper on the role of deliberate practice for the aquisition of expert performance, Ericsson et al. (1993) report a number of constraints that play a role in the aquisition of expert ...


8

One thing to think about is what's meant by "performance." In basic cognitive tasks (e.g., memory experiments), changing the payoff matrix (and thus motivational factors) often influences bias but not discrimination -- in other words, upping the ante, so to speak, makes individuals more conservative (or careful) but doesn't much change their overall ...


8

Do personality tests predict job performance in general? There is a large academic literature correlating personality test scores with job performance. You might want to check out the meta-analysis by Barrick et al (2001). It reports the meta-analytic correlations often based on hundreds of studies between Big 5 personality test scores and job performance. ...


8

[This started as a comment but became really long, hence an answer.] The hostility is real but the premise that more than a small minority of people forgo “working” by laziness is in fact very questionable, in several ways. People might dream of winning the lottery but there is very little evidence that they generally avoid “work”. In fact, with the same ...


7

High incentives (especially related to time needed to finish a task) makes one very concentrated but at the same time leaves little opportunity to look outsid the box (i.e. to develop a creative approach, sometimes needed to complete a non-rudimentary task). For a popular science/economics talk, see also: ...


7

i think death is what motivates people to work: working is doing something and trying to be remembered, much like Picasso, Einstein... Every human would want to do something in his life, something to be remembered for, everyone wants to make a change, make a difference, the ultimate dream of every human being able is to change the world. And that's why they ...


6

Relationship between study time and performance Plant et al (2004) review the literature of studies that have correlated average time spent studying and variables such as GPA. They report a couple of correlational studies in the literature that found small positive correlations (e.g., $r=.18, r=.23$). They make two main points: (a) academic performance is ...


6

This is an extremely interesting question. I'm going to take a different approach to the question by focusing on both personality traits and leadership theories (e.g. authentic leadership, transformational leadership, servant leadership etc) to answer whether those two distinct areas can influence leaders' children's development. I will admit that I didn't ...


5

Quantitative papers There are a number of papers that didn't use a Bayesian approach but provide a relevant basis for developing quantitative Bayesian models: Zickar et al (2004) performed a mixed-model using item response theory to examine different classes of respondents to personality tests. While it doesn't appear to be a Bayesian analysis, it is an ...


5

There is a large general literature evaluating the degree to which personality tests predict job performance. In particular see for example the review by Barrick et al (2001). In general such reviews find that personality measures provide a small but meaningful prediction of job performance. Ipsative testing So in general, you are asking about how ...


4

This is a big and important topic. The following is a bit of an introduction. Feel free to ask a separate more focussed question. Some terminology In general distinctions are made between the terms bias, fairness, and discrimination. Bias is a statistical term. Bias for a group can indicate that test scores for that group are systematically lower or ...


4

Summary of Kluemper et al 2012 I had a read through the article by Kluemper et al (2012) mentioned in the answer by John Pick. The following summarises some key points. After discussing the broader context of using social networks to measure personality, Kluemper et al (2012) cited the findings of a couple of existing studies: Karl, Peluchette, and ...


4

If you're looking for a simple game, for example to teach the holdout problem to students just beginning game theory, you could do worse than start with a general prisoner's dilemma (PD) game. The 30-second explanation is that it only makes (rational) sense for one player to act if the other person is acting as well. The holdout problem is a motivation for ...


4

The aspects of incentives which you are interested in are studied by psychologists as well. I recommend Carol Dweck's work. One of her popular books is Mindset.


4

For applied purposes, gamification can be captured within a self-determination theoretical framework. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is an influential theory of motivation which grew out of research on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards in the 1970's, and which has been applied to virtually every learning setting. The main proponents of SDT include Edward Deci and ...


4

Let me say first off that I don't know anything about cognitive style. However, I have recently read an interesting article by van Knippenberg and van Ginkel (2010) about diversity in work teams which might be relevant here. Demographic Diversity. To explain the sometimes contradicting effects of diversity on work teams, the authors propose a model that ...



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