# Tag Info

16

I think you have to be careful with the proposition that "rewards do not increase performance on non-rudimentary tasks". The experiments that Dan Pink cites involve experiments where participants are in a room and are supervised by an experimenter while they complete a task. This social pressure by the experimenter may well be enough for participants to be ...

13

Many single item measures of mood can be found in the literature. Those two are based on the idea that affect is bidimensional and that one's current state can be reported using a grid: Russell, J.A., Weiss, A., & Mendelsohn, G.A. (1989). Affect Grid: A Single-Item Scale of Pleasure and Arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57 (3), ...

11

Any review in this area should start with Peltzman's 1975 JPE article. Peltzman was writing a few years after the 1968 Motor Vehicle Safety Act (U.S.) went into effect. The act required, among other things, padded dash boards and seat belts. He says (p. 717): The one result of this study that can be put forward most confidently is that auto ...

10

I don't know of a study that tries to answer your specific question but you might want to have a look at illusory superiority, "a cognitive bias that causes people to overestimate their positive qualities and abilities and to underestimate their negative qualities, relative to others" (wikipedia). I can especially recommend the paper by Dunning and Kruger ...

10

There is a fundamental concept in motivation illustrating this effect- a bunch of studies have been done which I don't have the time of digging up citations for now, but the central findings are as follows: If the incentive (external reward) for a non-trivial task becomes too salient, the individual is driven to complete the task for that reward and will ...

9

In short, no. Perry's essay is amusing and compelling, but incomplete. Procrastination is an epiphenomenon of motivation, an active area of research which has some models relevant to the study of procrastination, such as: Hyperbolic Discounting Temporal Motivation Theory Rational Choice Theory Expectancy Theory Perry emphasizes task importance as the ...

7

Do personality tests predict job performance in general? There is a large academic literature correlating personality test scores with job performance. You might want to check out the meta-analysis by Barrick et al (2001). It reports the meta-analytic correlations often based on hundreds of studies between Big 5 personality test scores and job performance. ...

5

Quantitative papers There are a number of papers that didn't use a Bayesian approach but provide a relevant basis for developing quantitative Bayesian models: Zickar et al (2004) performed a mixed-model using item response theory to examine different classes of respondents to personality tests. While it doesn't appear to be a Bayesian analysis, it is an ...

5

High incentives (especially related to time needed to finish a task) makes one very concentrated but at the same time leaves little opportunity to look outsid the box (i.e. to develop a creative approach, sometimes needed to complete a non-rudimentary task). For a popular science/economics talk, see also: ...

5

One thing to think about is what's meant by "performance." In basic cognitive tasks (e.g., memory experiments), changing the payoff matrix (and thus motivational factors) often influences bias but not discrimination -- in other words, upping the ante, so to speak, makes individuals more conservative (or careful) but doesn't much change their overall ...

4

Summary of Kluemper et al 2012 I had a read through the article by Kluemper et al (2012) mentioned in the answer by John Pick. The following summarises some key points. After discussing the broader context of using social networks to measure personality, Kluemper et al (2012) cited the findings of a couple of existing studies: Karl, Peluchette, and ...

4

This is a big and important topic. The following is a bit of an introduction. Feel free to ask a separate more focussed question. Some terminology In general distinctions are made between the terms bias, fairness, and discrimination. Bias is a statistical term. Bias for a group can indicate that test scores for that group are systematically lower or ...

3

If you're looking for a simple game, for example to teach the holdout problem to students just beginning game theory, you could do worse than start with a general prisoner's dilemma (PD) game. The 30-second explanation is that it only makes (rational) sense for one player to act if the other person is acting as well. The holdout problem is a motivation for ...

3

Relationship between study time and performance Plant et al (2004) review the literature of studies that have correlated average time spent studying and variables such as GPA. They report a couple of correlational studies in the literature that found small positive correlations (e.g., $r=.18, r=.23$). They make two main points: (a) academic performance is ...

3

A theory which I believe explains this is the ground-breaking work that Carol Dweck has done on mindsets and how they relate to performance. To recap, People can have either a fixed mindset where they view abilities as fixed, are more driven by performance goals and use helpless strategies when confronted with tasks beyond their capabilities. If given a ...

3

The first thing that comes to mind when reading this is diffusion of responsibility. Because responsibility has not been explicitly assigned, as it would be in a one-on-one meeting, people tend to feel like they do not need to do anything.

3

Fortin and Masse (2000) explored the effect of expecting an interruption on the ability to accurately produce a timing interval (e.g., producing a 2000 millisecond timing interval): From the abstract: The interference from nontemporal processing on concurrent time estimation is usually attributed to disruption in timing caused by artentional ...

2

The paper referred to in the OP's media link is free online. It reviews the literature and presents its own new studies as well: KLUEMPER, D. H., ROSEN, P. A. and MOSSHOLDER, K. W. (2012), Social Networking Websites, Personality Ratings, and the Organizational Context: More Than Meets the Eye?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. doi: ...

2

Computing overall satisfaction There is discussion in the literature about whether measures of overall satisfaction should be calculated as some form of weighted composite of facet satisfaction where weights are derived from importance ratings. These debates have been applied to various types of satisfaction including life, job, and customer. In this ...

2

The distinction between maximum and typical performance was originally established by Sackett et al. (1988), and since then, how to predict either and their relation to one another seems to have been a very active area of research. In fact, there is a prohibitively large literature on the matter for a full review. Fortunately, your questions were recently ...

2

For applied purposes, gamification can be captured within a self-determination theoretical framework. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is an influential theory of motivation which grew out of research on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards in the 1970's, and which has been applied to virtually every learning setting. The main proponents of SDT include Edward Deci and ...

2

A lot of organisations are concerned about work place safety and integrity. Some jobs require driving as part of the job. Furthermore, in some jurisdictions personal injury that results from accidents that occur while commuting to work are covered by workers compensation. Thus, in some cases, driving behaviour is directly relevant to the job. In other cases, ...

2

Personality is generally theorised to be a stable individual difference variable. Research has shown it to be highly stable over time. Thus, from a theoretical perspective it typically has a primacy in causal models. Stress can be an ambiguous construct. It can refer to the objective existence of stressful stimuli or the way that individuals perceive ...

1

In short, I'd say the minimum requirement is to understand which behaviours you are influencing and why. Before you consider which game techniques to use, consider the 'story' of the product/service. Each story includes: Actor/s. Who are your targets? These actors are motivated by something. This is what your game should leverage. There is a goal. What ...

Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible