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8

The short answer: No, sex differences in professions is not a good basis for judging the intelligence of males and females. This question has already received flags to be closed. However, I think it should be left open particularly because it can be answered and I would like to address some of the assumptions and misconceptions in the question. First, I ...


8

Actually, standard IQ tests, such as Raven's matrices, tend to assess intelligence better if they are not timed. In this paper by Philip Vernon (1988) it was found that the g-factor extracted slightly more variance for the same test if the test was not timed than if it had a time limit. This means if you ask yourself: "What is this test measuring?", you can ...


7

Literal IQ: In a literal sense, IQ is a standardised score derived from intelligence tests. Typically IQ is scaled to have a a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. In that sense, it is a normative score. For children, the norm is defined relative to other children of a similar age, for adults, it is defined relative to an adult population. IQ as g: ...


5

Like any simple-seeming cognitive sciences question, it is important to start with a series of disclaimers. It might seem like human intelligence or intelligence more generally is an intuitive concept, but once you start to explore your intuition or look at historic definitions of intelligence, you see that intelligence is a very ill-defined and slippery ...


5

If non-human animals do have intelligence too, why is their intelligence not as advanced as humans? Notions like “advanced” or “better” really have no place in evolutionary thinking. Again, evolutionary fitness is about self-reproduction and success compared to whatever competition is present at any moment. There is no force “optimizing” species to meet ...


5

Let's first be clear that we didn't evolve from monkeys/apes/etc. That's a common misconception. Evolution states that we and monkeys/apes/etc. evolved from a common ancestor. Same with fish. If you go back far enough, we and fish share a common ancestor... we did not, however, evolve from today's Salmon or Macaque. That being said, the origin of ...


5

IQ scores in general: An IQ score is a normative score. The norm group is typically defined as the general population, and where the respondent is a child, the norm group is defined in terms of the general population of children of that same age. IQ scores typically have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. In order to get an estimate of ...


5

ISO 9241, a standard covering ergonomics of human-computer interaction, defines in its subsection 9241-110, "Dialogue Principles", that the interface in information systems should be (among other things): suitable for the task facilitate learning conform with user expectations describe its own purpose and functioning You could translate all this to: ...


4

There is some scientific evidence that it does. And a physiological explanation as well. During fasting, there are several things happening in the body, among other things hypoglycemia (low glucose level in the blood). All those changes that occur actually stress the brain. That stress has been shown to be compensated by the brain by creating brain-derived ...


4

Unanswered questions don't necessarily cause cognitive dissonance. Need for closure varies across individuals; some of us don't mind having some (or even many) unanswered questions much at all. One also moves forward along a path while "looping," and that path isn't necessarily infinite; in fact, it probably isn't for any mortal, practically speaking. For ...


4

We are driven by this need to find answer to our questions. Many questions arise from one's mind by experiencing new events or feelings, or having to sort out a cognitive dissonance. An example of this would be the need for victims to find the guilty. When we can’t immediately gratify our desire to know, we become highly motivated to reach a concrete ...


4

Assuming you're getting at a related idea to your other recent question (Does a more ergonomic and user friendly interface/device make the human brain work less?), I wouldn't worry about user friendliness causing mental atrophy by precluding the need for thought. Thought continues well beyond matters of control to matters of application and optimization. ...


4

The answer is "yes." The entire field of Human Factors and Ergonomics is devoted to enhancing the experience of the human user. Cognitive engineering is the branch of human factors that focuses specifically on how people perceive and respond to system interfaces. Engineers and scientists in this field try to design components, systems, interfaces, and even ...


4

A lot of research seems to have been done on the challenges multilingualism poses for the human brain, but not so much on how much actually meeting those challenges improves one's overall cognitive capacity. At present the general approach seems to be summed up: "Cognitive science suggests that the brain has selective resources with limited capacity" (Emily ...


4

So you're basically asking what are the causes of interpersonal differences in intelligence as typically measured by standardised psychometric tests. This question forms the basis for a large proportion of the literature on intelligence. For example see a journal like Intelligence. For a review you could read Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns A few quick ...


3

Multiple causes of not reading instructions As @crash notes, there are likely many explanations for not reading instructions. It may be motivated by not caring about task performance. And such dispositions may be specific to the particular task or setting, or they might be partially related to some general disposition of the individual in terms of ...


3

I'm not familiar with all tests out there, but I'll give an example from the fourth revision of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV), one of the more popular tests. The time to complete the whole test does not matter (as long as you complete it in one go without long breaks). Usually testing takes between one and two hours, but if you test very ...


3

I hadn't heard of the Bhatia measure before. A little research (see page 42 of Sharma and Sharma) explains that it is a performance based measure of ability for children in India. In general, you should obtain the test manual to learn about the recommended scoring procedure. A quick Google suggests it might be available from here: http://www.npcindia.com/ ...


2

Subject performance is not intelligence: Doing well in a single subject is a weak measure of intelligence. While the correlation between IQ and GPA is fairly high. The correlation for a given subject will typically be much lower. So another way of framing this subject is whether doing a subject in your head is a good proxy for subject understanding. More ...


2

IQ is intelligence quotient. It is invented by Theodoore Simon and Alfred Binet. IQ = (development age / chronological age) * 100 and it is developed to classify retarded children in elementary school. Today IQ is something else, but it is somewhat synonym for intelligence. There is fluid crystal intelligence, spearman general factor, multi-factor theories ...


2

Here's an interesting abstract from a relevant paper I found a while back: This paper proposes a new theoretical model of curiosity that incorporates the neuroscience of "wanting" and "liking", which are two systems hypothesised to underlie motivation and affective experience for a broad class of appetites. In developing the new model, the paper ...


1

This ted talk video would probably interest you. It seems the current understanding is that it would depend on both the individual, and the type of task they are performing. Here are the general tendencies I've seen/been taught. For physical tasks or tasks where the important factor is strength and effort, time constraints and rewards tend to increase the ...


1

I'm not sure the article really covers the economic aspects. Drinking is an expensive hobby, enjoyed by many in well paid jobs who are able to fund it. It's not just the social aspect it may be drinking at home but I would say this could also be impacted by the type of jobs that are better paid or require more intelligence. Many people in higher-end jobs ...


1

Kazimierz Dabrowski had a great theory (the Theory of Positive Disintegration) about the relationship between psychoneuroses, the most common symptoms of mental illness, and the developmental trajectories of gifted people. In brief, gifted people are more likely to live out-of-sync with their social environments (too smart, too intense, too righteous, too ...



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