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14

Treisman & Gelade's Feature Integration Theory suggests that we are able to process an entire visual scene in parallel at the level of individual features. For example, in a visual search task, the time required to find a blue circle in a field of red circles is independent of the total number of circles. However, focused attention (typically foveal) is ...


10

I don't think you need to resort to hormonal or neural explanations. Staring has social meaning. The meaning of staring varies across cultures and contexts. In some contexts it is normal (e.g., staring at a presenter, staring at the person you are talking to, staring at a sales assistant). In these contexts, staring has meaning such as indicating interest or ...


8

A good place to start for a high level understanding of all perception and action is Jaoquin Fuster's perception-action cycle. As he says, it's a "cybernetic cycle linking the organism to its environment". He describes two moieties of the brain, posterior sensation moiety, and the anterior behavioral moiety. Information cycles between perception, ...


8

Yes, there's been scientific tests. No, they did not support the propositions. However, some supporters of the propositions argue that existing empirical tests have methodological problems. There's a discussion of scientific evaluation for NLP on wikipedia that cites several review articles. Quoting the Heap (1988) review as quoted in Wikipedia: ...


7

There are different kinds of hypnosis. In therapeutic settings traditional, or classic, hypnosis is differentiated from modern, Ericksonian hypnosis. Traditional hypnosis, as it has been used from Mesmer to Freud, is based on direct commands. The hypnotist usually acts in a dominant manner and uses eye contact, pendulums, fixation of the index finger etc. ...


6

It has been theorized that it has to do with "visualizing" dreams, but the movements themselves are by virtue of the pattern of electrical activity as the waves travel between the Pons (in the brainstem), Geniculate nuclei (in the thalamus), and Occipital lobe. From PGO Waves PGO waves and REM sleep PGO waves are an integral part of rapid eye ...


6

Let's begin by being clear about terminology and what is involved in eye movements at a basic level. Saccades are eye movements. Fixations are when your eyes are still. No visual information is gathered during saccades - we are functionally blind when making saccades. The easy way to demonstrate this is to try staring in a mirror and watching your own ...


6

Nocturnal lagophthalmos is the search term you're looking for. But it's less that they "can" fall asleep with their eyes open and more that they "can't" close their eyes during sleep: Nocturnal lagophthalmos is the inability to close the eyelids during sleep. Lagophthalmos is associated with exposure keratopathy, poor sleep, and persistent ...


4

binocular coordination Linked below is a general overview of binocular coordination which also describes how, due to independent saccades events, mammalian eyes are generally not actually very well "synchronized". Kirkby JA, Webster LA, Blythe HI, Liversedge SP. (2008) Binocular coordination during reading and non-reading tasks. Psychol Bull. 134(5):742-63 ...


3

If the question means in which of the option pairs is the second one more attention-grabbing, I would guess d. a. Light to dark (shade) - I would say that visual attention is automatically drawn to bright areas in the visual field, so, exactly the opposite. b. Large to small (size) - exactly the opposite again, bigger objects would be more ...


3

Basically, the retina contains two different kinds of receptors: rods and cones. Cones are concentrated in the fovea and activate ganglion cells more discretely than rods. Rods are more interconnected by horizontal cells (if I'm not mistaken...), so multiple rods can often activate the same ganglion cell, whereas each cone is more likely to have its own ...


2

This answer is going to be pure speculation as I don't have any references handy, but I would argue that fixing gaze on a single spot in the world provides three separate benefits for balance. All of these benefits are related to the fact that when you are not moving very much, fixating your gaze on a single spot in the external world also tends to "lock" ...


2

I have summarized some references below. (Search terms: "oculometry pupillometry disorders of consciousness" in Google Scholar, nothing special): Grandchamp et al, 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00031 - A primary research article related to consciousness (mind wandering) where the authors investigated various pupillometric responses, among other measures. ...


2

I basically agree with @Nick Stauner, but I want to add another important aspect, namely the gradient of photoreceptor densities in the human retina: In the fovea there is a sharp peak in cone density compared to more eccentric regions, as described in Curcio et al. (1990) and see the graph in Web Vision. But admittedly, rod receptor densities surrounding ...


2

EYE RELAXATION Sit comfortably, close your eyes and cover them with your palms. Be sure that both palms are cupped and do not press on the eyes. Imagine the blackness getting darker and darker. Rest in this manner for five minutes at a time, at least thrice a day. Stand upright in front of an open window, preferably overlooking greenery. Keep your feet a ...


1

What are you trying to do? If you're trying to leverage pupil-dilation data from an eye-tracker, there are ways to deconvolute the timeseries if you can make a strong inference as to exactly when the stimulus of interest took place. I think you'll find everything you're looking for here.


1

Interesting question! Trying to interpret your question, I think what you are after is a model that can predict the saccade endpoint based on eye tracking data? The following answer is more of a basic neuroscientific approach: The neuronal responses in the superior colliculus (SC) can be accurately used to predict the total saccade as a vector. Basically, ...


1

Whether you tell them is going to depend on what you are trying to accomplish. What is the nature of the cues? If they capture strictly exogenous attention, what you tell won't affect how they allocate their attention because orienting is completely involuntary. However, if the cues involve your participants having to decide to redirect their attention, ...



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