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41

Yes, writing increases the modality and attention given to a piece of information. Increasing the effort and the ways that you have experienced a bit of information helps you encode that information better; this is Elaborative Encoding. More generally the more deeply you process a thing the more likely you are to properly encode the memory for future ...


20

I'm going to disagree with Ben here. My colleague Adam Putnam has spent several years researching whether it's best for memory to speak, write, or even think particular responses out loud. His research has continued to turn up no differences between these different modalities, despite what we know about transfer-appropriate processing and elaborative ...


12

There's lots of research out there on flash cards and they are a proven, effective study aid. Flash Cards work because of the "Forgetting Curve"; rehearsal and retrieval before you forget an item strengthens the memory before it decays allowing one to optimize encoding into LTM. The paper Optimising learning using flashcards: Spacing is more effective ...


11

Flash cards work for two main reasons: they serve as retrieval practice they force the student to space practice out Both of these reasons have been demonstrated to enhance learning. Retrieval practice, sometimes called the testing effect, has been shown by Roediger and colleagues to promote learning above and beyond additional study. For instance, in a ...


6

The first method (repeat the terms over and over) is called rote rehearsal. It's not actually a very good way to learn, though it has the benefit that it always "works" because you can always repeat a list. You may be unable to perform certain other encoding tricks such as elaborative rehearsal due to the context of the items, like a list of random words. ...


3

The behavioral output itself can only indirectly affect memory, but the mechanism of reinforcement lies in its reception of attention. For instance, athletes who practice a sport seriously know, as also popularly attested by Mack and Cassteven's Mind Gym, that 50% of practice should be mental. They should watch the sport, imagine playing the sport, think ...


3

A quick Pubmed search shows a couple of potential useful papers. The more promising: Karpicke, JD., & Bauernschmidt, A. (2011) Spaced retrieval: absolute spacing enhances learning regardless of relative spacing J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn. 37(5):1250-7 Toppino, TC., Kasserman, JE., & Mracek WA. (1991) The effect of spacing repetitions on the ...


2

Probably because describing each element involve a deeper process of information for your students (they have to organize their knowledge to understand what is it and how it relate to the other parts). Look at this: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levels-of-processing_effect



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