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If that same effect is happening with the "99% fat free" labeling, consumers would over-perceive the amount of fat I think you are misunderstanding the desired effect here. I don't see how "99% fat free" would lead to the impression that a product contains a lot of fat. My read is, "This is 99% fat free! That's really good!" as opposed to "1% fat" which ...


4

This is just an elaboration on my comment that Sanford et al (2002) might be relevant to the question. If you don't have access Tony Sanford indicates that "To obtain a copy of any of these papers, please email." The study reports three experiments. In experiment 2 they found experimentally that there was a preference for the "% fat free" format. ...


4

Partial answer: Douglas Hofstadter has written quite a lot about this from a more philosophical approach. His style isn't for everyone, I think it's introduced well in this chapter ('Ant Fugue'). For more applied work from the same, you might look at Mitchell and Hofstadter's CopyCat model of analogies (described briefly here, as well as on wikipedia). ...


2

I am not sure I understand the refill example, and I do not have any empirical study in mind, but here is a classical fictitious example drawn from Mas-Collel, Winsthon and Green, Microeconomics, which might be relevant to your question. The example is slightly fetched but I think it's good to get the idea. Suppose you want to choose a color to paint your ...



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