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14

As the Wikipedia article on Masturbation summarizes, the current consensus among scientists is that masturbation has no negative effects whatsoever, and that all known positive effects are physiological (e.g. reduction of the probability to have prostrate cancer in men over 50) or on the level of general well-being (e.g. it relieves depression and leads to ...


9

A conscious basis for gender identification? There is currently no evidence to suggest that conscious experiences are a factor in leading a transgender person to identify with the opposite sex. Additionally, there is mounting evidence that transgender children are statistically indistinguishable from children of the gender with which they identify, meaning ...


6

A great overview of this topic is available in Chapter 6 of the book The Invisible Gorilla by Chabris & Simons. My answer is based, in large part, on their summary of the topic. The "Mozart Effect" was originally reported by Rauscher, Shaw, & Ky (1993). In the experiment, college students completed a set of typical IQ tests. Before taking the tests, ...


6

Eye contact is one of the principal cues humans use to evaluate where other people direct their attention. A special issue on the use of eye tracking in the Infancy journal and other studies reported that infants' eyes are useful measures of attention over a range of task domains including object perception (Johnson, Slemmer, & Amso, 2004), faces (Hunnis ...


5

I don't have a complete answer, but I'll add on to Christian's comment. I'm not really familiar with an evolutionary account of facial expressions, but folks like Adam K. Anderson have implied that the original use of facial features for sensory sampling have been co-opted for social use (e.g., to indicate attention, which Christian pointed out, or affect, ...


4

Biondi et al. (1998) compared MR images of monozygotic twins and found that while the brains of monozygotic twins are not identical, they are similar. Relevant for understanding the concordance rate of schizophrenia in monozygotic twins, Suddath et al. (1990) examined MR images of monozygotic twins who where discordant for schizophrenia. They found that the ...


4

I think the confusion arises because the hierarchy of "activity" as described in that figure exist in the context of an ontology that is closer to dynamical perception-action cycles than to the evolutionary information processing ontology typically used in cognitivist approaches. The world is structured; it comprises discrete objectively existing ...


3

I am unsure if you mean, if the ability to lucid dream comes with age? or if the type or degree of lucidity within the dream is different depending on the individual? So I will aim for a ballpark answer. Lucid dreaming defined by a dream in which the dreamer is – while dreaming – aware that she/he is dreaming (Schredl & Erlacher, 2004). A variety of ...


3

S-shaped learning curves As per A Umar Mukthar's comment, the phenomenon is known as an S-shaped learning curve. They have been a known phenomenon in psychology for many decades, and were originally attributed to trial-and-error learning sets (Harlow, 1949). Harlow defined a learning set in the following manner: The monkeys learn how to learn individual ...


3

Dynamical systems models is commonly used in the domain of perception and action. See Warren, 2006 for a comprehensive review. This work uses the mathematical formalism of dynamics and not just the metaphorical concepts. An exploration of the references of Warren's paper, as well as of papers that have cited it, will find many examples of dynamical models of ...


2

Do you arbitrarily decide on what to define the activity, and what to define as the underlying actions? As Christian stated in his answer, there seem to be no concrete (unambiguous) steps to follow. This most likely has to do with Activity Theory being a 'framework for analysis' rather than a theory in the traditional scientific sense. It thus highly ...


2

Having one or more fetishes is very widespread, and thus rather normal. The prevalence of fetishism is not known with certainty.[21] The majority of fetishists are male.[21] In a 2011 study, 30% of men reported fetishistic fantasies, and 24.5% had engaged in fetishistic acts. Of those reporting fantasies, 45% said the fetish was intensely ...


2

Yes, addition becomes procedural knowledge. Below is an extract from the book "Smart Thinking by Art Markman", that clearly explains the process : When you are learning to do addition, the two procedures you have for adding compete with each other. One of those procedures requires some effort. You start with the bigger number and then count up. ...


1

This may provide you with extra supplementary information regarding the notorious "10 Percent Myth". To respond to your statement regarding increasing brain capacity through am increase in knowledge: Synaptic Consolidation is the process by which items are transferred from short-term to long-term memory. Within the first minutes or hours after ...


1

Ok, so since it has been two years and no-one has answered, and this is indeed a very interesting question, here is my attempt to shed some light on it. Is there any difference in brain activity while doing something you love or doing something similar you don't like? Yes, without getting too deep into specifics - there certainly difference. Primarily ...


1

Considering the classical discussion of nature versus nurture, we can assume here that part of the causality is nature (genes, epigenetics) and part is nurture (environment, upbringing). We are all born with a whole bunch of instincts, probably hundreds. Not all these instincts are in effect at a given time, and a baby of course is not going to be displaying ...


1

The work of Siegler in "The Perils of Averaging Data Over Strategies: An Example from Children's Addition", examines 5 different strategies associated with addition: Retrieval Where the answer was retrieved from memory Min Where the smallest addend was used for counting from the starting point of the largest addend Decomposition Where the complicated ...



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