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6

The first one is a test if a child has understood conservation of matter. It is an example of a conservation task. These belong to the tests used in the framework of Piaget to test what stage of development a child is in. Here is a video demonstration of the cookie task. Here is another question on this site pertaining to a different conservation task. The ...


6

A useful model for topics like this comes from McCrae and Costa (1999): There's quite a lot more going on here than is pertinent to your question, but note that influences originate from biological bases on the top left, and from external influences on the upper right. Everything else is modeled as an effect of mediated, dynamic processes between these ...


5

Motherese may play a role in emotional development. Soken and Pick write: "Concurrent with the exaggerated speech of motherese, there are probably exaggerated facial displays, allowing infants to explore the particular aspects of the face... Child-centered displays may serve as opportunities for learning about affective events." Walker-Andrews (1997) also ...


4

Counting, easily. It's a matter of rote and repetition, dominated by procedural learning. Critical thinking requires more advanced circuitry and learning. There is a lot of really rapid neural development still occurring in the first couple years and children are learning from society and parents and experience in the meantime. During this time, they can ...


4

A fetish is arousal from an inanimate/non-living/non-sentient object. They fall into two categories: media fetish (e.g., a fetish for leather, regardless of the form it takes), and form fetish (e.g., a shoe fetish, regardless of the material the shoe is made out of). There are multiple theories on how fetishes develop: Classical Conditioning - the ...


4

I believe this is referring to David McClelland's 1961 book "The Achieving Society."* McClelland proposed that an achievement motivation (desire for achievement) could predict economic growth and success. He examined this from a range of social and individual psychological factors, including the achievement content of "cultural products" such as children's ...


3

I would look at Jennifer Crocker and Brenda Major's paper in 1989, Psychological Review, entitled "Social Stigma and Self-Esteem: The Self-Protective Properties of Stigma" which focuses on how being the target of social stigma can actually be protective of one's self-esteem. It's not precisely what you're discussing but it comes the closest in the ...


3

To extend on @BenCole comment, an interesting summary of different models of time perceptions can be found in this paper. Now these models are in a sense more descriptive than the fundamental biological hypothesis mentioned by caseyr547, so might not be ready to call these "explanations", depending on what you mean by the term. The models meant to give a ...


3

Why do often repeated behaviors become automatic? => Because that is efficient. Human behavior is often modelled in a dual process theory: if possible, act without thinking only if necessary, carefully consider the situation at hand and think about the best reaction If you do the same thing over and over again, then obviously it is either the best ...


3

vand den Bos et al (2002) van den Bos et al (2002) summarises research over various ages. They reported: The reading task was to read in 1 min, as fast and accurately as possible, the unique and unrepeated words of a stan- dardized word-reading test. Results indicate that word-reading speed and naming speeds of colors and pictures continue to ...


3

A cuckolded father would be likely to reject a child who is discovered to not be his own. From evolutionary perspective, men who get cuckolded and take care of a genetically-distant man's child would fail to reproduce their own genes and increase the chance of survival of the genes of the other man who did the cuckolding. Thus rejecting such a child would be ...


2

At birth, visual structures are fully present yet immature in their potentials. Following are the innate visual abilities of an infant 1. detect changes in brightness, 2. distinguish between stationary and kinetic objects, 3. follow kinetic objects in their visual fields. However, many of these areas are very poorly developed. With physical ...


2

Here are some excerpts from Wikipedia you might find helpful for the (somewhat too-) general question: A habit...tends to occur subconsciously.[(Butler & Hope, 1995)]...[Andrews (1903)]...defined [habits as]: "...acquired through previous repetition of a mental experience." Habitual behavior often goes unnoticed in persons exhibiting it, because a ...


2

There is a clear association between musical ability and mathematical ability, perhaps best recognised in savantism in people with developmental disabilities. There are limited domains in which savantism appears to occur, including mathematical calculations, reproducing music instantly, recalling specific facts, and perfect-perspective drawing. There are a ...


2

I'm not sure how constructive it is to think of it in terms of "components", because there are so many that contribute to selfishness: for example, you only feel your body's pain. Food and sex only feel good to you when you're the one experiencing them. Instead, it might be more constructive to look for components of selflessness and altruism, them being ...


2

A cursory search strongly suggests that the distinction is arbitrary and practical, with little link to developmental science. I can find no evidence for any particularly compelling biological change centered around the age of 18. That, along with the fact that the age of eighteen is not a universal age-of-majority, makes me say that there is no scientific ...


1

Nostalgia for fond memories commonly produces positive emotion (for further review, see Zhou, Wildschut, Sedikides, Chen, & Vingerhoets, 2012). As for the increase in your appreciation of these particular puns, I've mentioned in a very recent answer of mine to another very recent question about humor that positive emotion alone may encourage the sense ...


1

There is no evidence that "the mind is a soul". This is what's known as the "hard question of consciousness". There has been some research conducted on "out-of-body" experiences. The only one I can remember offhand was a couple of years ago where words and numbers were placed on top of cabinets in operating theatres. The logic behind this was that if anyone ...


1

This answer reflects my own thoughts on this topic, It isn't any generalized opinion of psychologists that I am putting forth. First:- Each person is indispensable (not just the one we love), comes with his own characteristics, teaches us to look at the world from different perspective. But we notice the impact of the one we love more than any other because ...


1

Improving your self-image (having more posessions, looking better, and all the other components of selfishness) probably engages various subcortical emotional circuits involving the amygdala, hypothalamus, and so on. This is where basic drives are also implemented. This is by far not a disorder, nor necessarily a subject for neurology! Selfishness, in ...


1

For a real answer on this topic, you need two things: one is to understand your question, and the other is an understanding of Jean Piaget's masses of research into the development of intelligence (from birth to adulthood). Regarding understanding your own question, you must appreciate that decades of philosophy and psychology reveal that you cannot separate ...


1

Quote from article at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23805119 Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' ...



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