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16

People who kill themselves usually believe that they are in an unbearable situation from which they cannot escape and that things won't ever get better. The problem with research into the reasons for suicide is that those that successfuly killed themselves can no longer explain their motives, and those that survived might – consciously or unconsciously – ...


14

The truth is that very few people who haven't seriously contemplated suicide, or who haven't dealt extensively with many people who have, really understand it. They will, like you, not figure it out, thinking there are so many other options available to them. It is even more puzzling when wealthy people, who have so many more options than most, do so, while ...


10

It's all about the receptors, really. There are 7 families of serotonin receptors that perform different functions within the brain, and according to Wikipedia 14 different subtypes have been discovered. The article assumes that a blanket level of serotonin would be sufficient to "perk" up the brain, wherein it is much more complicated. Serotonin serves ...


8

Both schizofrenia and depression are linked to a genetic predisposition and life events. Individuals with no genetic predisposition may become depressed when the trigger is sufficiently intense, while individuals with genetic predisposition may become depressed in the absence of clear life events triggering the depression (Kendler et al, 1995). Reference - ...


7

Most of the 'true' hallucinogens are classified as 5HT2A agonists. 5HT2A is a postsynaptic serotonin receptor. Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on the other hand act by increasing serotonin (5HT) levels in the brain, which in turn activates presynaptic 5HT1A receptors. Due to a continuous stimulation of these 5HT1A receptors they become ...


7

In a meta-anylysis, Bohlmeijer (2007) found that: In the last twenty years reminiscence has been applied in a large number of settings and with a large number of target groups. Examples of applications are: community-residents with a major depression, elderly with moderate depressive symptoms, nursing home residents, elderly with dementia, ...


7

Human depression has been modeled in a variety of animal models, including cats (Wilner, 1984). Cats show comparable signs of distress when subject to maternal separation, including separation phenomena of protest, followed by despair. Although it is hard to project the DSM-V criteria onto cats, they can show comparable behaviors when subject to anxiety and ...


5

I suppose at face value, the answer to the question "Is serotonin linked to depression?" would 'yes'. However, if the question was "Is Major Depressive Disorder or Dysthimia the result of deficits in serotonergic signaling?" the answer becomes much less black-and-white. First, to piggyback on Chuck's response, it is very important to consider 5-HT ...


5

"Their lives are perfectly fine" is a hard to test thing. Hard to compare. How people feel and respond is deeply contextual. However there are several potential reasons: They may be 'wired' to feel stress or respond emotionally (i.e. Due to the way their brain has developed). A feeling of not being in control (This is often hard to perceive from outside ...


5

There certainly isn't a single cause of depression. Wikipedia does not list inflammation, so that seems to be sufficient disproof of universal acceptance, and at least one candidate for representative of mainstream opinions. Berk and colleagues (2013) make a pretty convincing case though, so it may only be a matter of time, exposure to the evidence, and ...


5

It may interest you to know that depression and anxiety relate to emotional stability (essentially the opposite of neuroticism), a personality trait which tends to decrease over the lifespan, especially in young adulthood (Roberts & Mroczek, 2008). Here's a figure depicting this trend (bottom left): This article points out that most of the personality ...


5

There is a lot of research on depression in animals. Wikipedia has a good summary of the comparison of depression between animals and humans: It is difficult to develop an animal model that perfectly reproduces the symptoms of depression in patients. Many animals lack self-consciousness, self-reflection, and consideration; moreover, hallmarks of ...


5

Short answer: Bipolar disorder is probably not composed of two comorbid illnesses, but it may be on a continuum that includes some depressive disorders. This is a good question, though it does convey some confusion associated with this diagnosis that should be cleared up. Bipolar symptoms: The first confusion I think is the idea that "depression", ...


4

I would also like to point out that there is a clear difference between a psychological depression and an existential one. I would like to point out the definitions of James Park of the University of Minnesota; please have a look at the table at the bottom of this page. So then, people with perfectly fine lives might well end up with a "clinical ...


4

This is a big question, but here are a few thoughts. While we could argue about the details, concepts around set points and the hedonic treadmill have reasonable empirical support. The general finding is that life satisfaction ratings are fairly stable from year to year (Lucas & Donnellan, 2007) which suggests that there are relatively stable individual ...


4

Yes, they can coexist. No, they aren't opposites. How could they be? Both ADHD and OCD affect a variety of different brain regions, and its effects are not consistent in every person. Maybe if OCD and all its symptoms were always caused by an excess of dopamine in one specific pathway in the reward system, whereas ADHD and all its symptoms was always caused ...


4

Overall, based on my limited research it appears there is no evidence that people who are more logical are more likely to experience depression. There is a theory that people who see the world more accurately (of which rationality would be a component) are more likely to become depressed. It is called depressive realism {1}. However, the theory doesn't seem ...


3

It is common for psychological tests to include multiple items with similar meaning. These items are then combined to form an overall scale score (e.g., depression or depressed thoughts). Multiple items with a similar meaning are used to increase the reliability of measurement, which is also important for validity. I don't think there is a huge difference ...


3

The ICD and DSM definitions can be a bit opaque, but there are several criteria that are usually considered necessary for diagnosis. Different practitioners may diagnose more conservatively or more pervasively, but those differences are based on their professional experience, and they are all meant to interpret from similar guidelines. Because there are ...


3

This may be more of a non-answer than an answer, but here it goes. When you're talking about the effect of something like pain, it's valuable to first understand some of the complexity. While it's easy to put things in boxes in practice, (physical pain, emotional pain, etc.) it's very difficult to put those things in boxes when you're talking about a ...


3

There are different theories about the causes of depression. Three of them assume a cause that could be affected by aerobic exercise. Neurochemical theory of depression: It seems that depression might be caused by low serotonin and/or noradrenalin levels. Physical activity releases both neurotransmitters, thus alleviating depressive symptoms. Cognitive ...


3

I'm not any kind of professional in this field, but I can say just a few things about this from experience in my family. I thought depressive feelings and being diagnosed with depression are one and the same. But health of a family member gave me insight into feelings that can't be changed just because your belief changes. Depressed person, with altered ...


3

I'm not sure about the trained part, but there have been cases where people have spontaneously shifted into a very enjoyable state of mind for a very long time, for example: Eckhart Tolle, who supposedly spent 2 years in utter bliss.


3

I would say it is impossible. Being unhappy is a necessary experience to make the feeling of happiness arise. Maybe there is some joyful state that can persist over time without unhappiness but I doubt it. As I see it, unhappiness at times comes with the deal of living.


3

ADHD is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder. Neurodevelopmental disorders are impairments of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system. A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function that affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory and that unfolds as the individual grows. You are correct ...


3

There are two ways to interpret/answer this question. First, is there a recognized disorder that is characterized by mania in the absence of depression? Second, are there people who experience mania in the absence of depression? The answer to the first interpretation is no. There is currently no "major manic disorder" or "unipolar mania." Given the DSM-5 ...


2

The proverb you mention is overly general to the point of being largely false (or at least unfalsifiable, to give some credit to the defensibility of philosophical solipsism otherwise). @JunJun and @felino's answers also generalize too much, but this is partly a consequence of a lack of specificity in the OP. Depression in general is widely misunderstood and ...


2

While it is indeed one of the theories, it is by no means not the mainstream one. Nowadays, it seems the neurogenic theory of depression is gaining a lot of support, if one looks at recent publications. Briefly, the theory claims that impaired neurogenesis prevents replenishment of parahippocampal granule cells that normally inhibit the amygdala – a ...



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