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Activation of serotonin systems seems to play a role. A hallucination induced by mushrooms or LSD, for example, is an example of an artificially inflated confidence rating attached to an experience. (Both of these drugs are serotonergic.)


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Cognitive dissonance and decision-making are not really related. Cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, performs an action that is contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas, or values, or is confronted by new information ...



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