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8

If that same effect is happening with the "99% fat free" labeling, consumers would over-perceive the amount of fat I think you are misunderstanding the desired effect here. I don't see how "99% fat free" would lead to the impression that a product contains a lot of fat. My read is, "This is 99% fat free! That's really good!" as opposed to "1% fat" which ...


6

I believe these questions are dealt with by "support theory," the seminal publications being: Tversky, A., & Koehler, D. J. (1994). Support theory: A nonextensional representation of subjective probability. Psychological Review, 101(4), 547-566. Rottenstreich, Y., & Tversky, A. (1997). Unpacking, repacking, and anchoring: advances in support ...


6

Does the locking refer to the initiation of the measurement with starting cue being being the presentation of stimulus or the response of the subject? More or less, yes. When measuring brain activity, you usually make a long, continuous recording during which you expose your study participants to a task over and over again. There's a lot of noise ...


5

It's an interesting phenomena. And I think it can be seen in many other domains beyond lifts. At least where I live, pedestrian crossings have buttons, which I've seen people repeatedly press. You can see it often on computers and other digital devices when the system does not immediately respond to user input. Basic Bayesian Rational Actor My starting ...


5

The probability of conjunctive events (all six tosses are heads) are overestimated, relative to a single event of similar overall probability. This result has been shown by Paul Slovic, in an experiment that is described in its abstract as follows: This study examined the effects on the attractiveness of a gamble, of manipulating the number and ...


5

Try an internet search on animal learning probability. Although that might not be what you want because it sounds like you specifically want insight as opposed to learning in general. Your particular example is problematic because you're inferring far too much on the subjects part. They might prefer B because they just want more of anything offered. The ...


4

The quote "Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori" is from one of Horace's Odes (III.2.13), and it translates as: "it is sweet and honorable to die for one's fatherland". It is assumed that Horace did not glorify the death of a soldier in this poem but allude to the two predominant philosophical doctrines of his time, epicureism and stoa, and their ...


4

This is just an elaboration on my comment that Sanford et al (2002) might be relevant to the question. If you don't have access Tony Sanford indicates that "To obtain a copy of any of these papers, please email." The study reports three experiments. In experiment 2 they found experimentally that there was a preference for the "% fat free" format. ...


3

Well, actually I have often had the experience that buttons on appliances signal that they have been pressed but nevertheless the appliance does not react. For example, right here under my computer is an external hard disk. A light glows when I press the on/off button. Still, the hard disk does not turn on about 80% of the time, when I press the button (the ...


3

I believe these two beautiful articles target just what you are looking for: Niv, Y., Joel, D., Meilijson, I., & Ruppin, E. (2008). Adaptive Behavior Evolution of Reinforcement Learning in Uncertain Environments : A Simple Explanation for Complex... doi:10.1177/10597123020101001 Shafir, Reich, Tsur, Erev & Lotem, 2008: Perceptual accuracy and ...


3

This type of research is fairly new in the animal domain, so I guess it would be difficult to find a review unless you use keywords for specific cognitive functions and a species (e.g. "decision making" AND "rat"). This link is probably of interest: Rats match humans in decision making that involves combining different sensory cues Also note that rats ...


2

This sounds to me very much (but not exactly) like a phenomenon Dan Ariely has done some research on, which he terms 'the IKEA effect'. Of course, he will describe it better than me, specifically in Norton and Ariely (2012), Ariely et al (2008), and this TED talk. Basically, what he's found is that people value things (furniture, lego models, plans) more ...


2

I can make a guess, until someone who really knows the answer comes along :) I haven't read the paper and the answer I can give is probably not going to be formal enough for a math student. But I can tell you what I think. The goal of the paper, I'm guessing, is to look at the pattern of activation recorded by EEG when viewing pictures of faces and cars, ...


2

I am not sure I understand the refill example, and I do not have any empirical study in mind, but here is a classical fictitious example drawn from Mas-Collel, Winsthon and Green, Microeconomics, which might be relevant to your question. The example is slightly fetched but I think it's good to get the idea. Suppose you want to choose a color to paint your ...


2

Why does prey, when caught in the jaws of an animal whose bite and build is powerful enough to carry them, cease to struggle? I remember an old quote from psychology, recounting first-hand, a lion attack. I cannot find it now. The narrator said that once the lion had him in its mouth, it shook him (physically) and thus disoriented him. He said that he felt ...


1

They felt doomed and had no more physical fight left in them. The only way they knew to stick it to the enemy was to commit suicide. They knew if they were to fight they will be slaughtered, giving the enemy a boost in confidence. If they were to be captured they would be publicly executed which also provides the enemy with a boost in confidence. Rolling up ...


1

This ted talk video would probably interest you. It seems the current understanding is that it would depend on both the individual, and the type of task they are performing. Here are the general tendencies I've seen/been taught. For physical tasks or tasks where the important factor is strength and effort, time constraints and rewards tend to increase the ...


1

Yes. The phenomenon is usually referred to as Visual Dominance or Visual Capture. A very nice demonstration of it, is known as McGurk Effect, in which our vision of the speaker's lips biases our perception of the sound we hear [1]. The McGurk Effect can be seen in a demo video here. Another demonstration of a similar effect is ventriloquism, in which we ...


1

Keith Stanovich summaries a school of thought on this debate nicely in his review of Kahneman's 'Thinking, Fast and Slow'. Essentially, system 1 excels in 'benign' environments, where the cues that system 1 is adept at using are reliable indicators of the true state of the world, and no one else is trying to manipulate you by faking these cues. System two ...


1

There's a great 2012 paper by A. Kheifets and Randy Gallistel showing a "probability sense" in animals. I love the paper's title: 'mice take calculated risks'. It's well worth reading. abstract: Animals successfully navigate the world despite having only incomplete information about behaviorally important contingencies. It is an open question to ...


1

This is often a common phenomenon, but the context that you cited in your question might hold the key to one possible explanation. When you are presenting your design to someone who is "supposed" to evaluate your design, finding flaws enforces the self-efficacy of the evaluator and signals to him that he's doing his job well. So, the boost to ...



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