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A much-cited reference on the statistical backgrounds is this one: Simon (1954), Spurious Correlation: A Causal Interpretation, J Am Stat Assoc; 49(267) A more recent, open access but applied research paper on the topic is: Parise et al. (2013), When Correlation Implies Causation in Multisensory Integration, Curr Biol; 22(1): 46–9


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Cognitive dissonance and decision-making are not really related. Cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, performs an action that is contradictory to one or more beliefs, ideas, or values, or is confronted by new information ...


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You might want to look at some decision making literature. A nice and easy to understand theory is the Drift Diffusion model. This model works with binary decisions, and argues that "evidence", an subconscious representation of it, for either one of the options is accumulated over time. The option that accumulates enough evidence, i.e. when it exceeds a ...


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How to integrate realistic cognitive models of human behaviour and ecomonic models is an open research question, however to tackle it, it might be helpful to break it into a few more easily answerable sub-questions: What models of human planning with emotional influence exist? There are a number of models in existence that try to capture emotion and ...


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"Trying to do two things at once is usually a recipe for doing both badly, according to a long line of research. We’re slower and less accurate when we try to juggle two things." Generally, it is thought that multi-tasking is just the brain rapidly shifting its focus from one matter to another instead of doing both (or several) things simultaneously. This ...


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It slightly depends on what you are asking and you might want to post on one of the mathematical stack exchanges instead. If you are asking "Do I get the same information by asking binary comparisons as by asking the four-option choice?" Then my answer is that you actually get more information, both about the pattern in the group and about a particular ...


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That's a good question, but... No way, man, they're not equal!! When you ask someone to choose between 4 options, their answer just means about their pick for the 4 options. And this, and only this, is the way to know the preference of people for those 4 options! The way you're purposing could even generate an inconsistency... Suppose that one person prefer ...


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The only book I know of in that field is Francis Fukuyama's 'Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity'. I haven't read it yet, but if it is anywhere near the quality of the Fukuyama books I have read, it will be excellent, perhaps even amazing, and given what he says about trust in the book I'm reading right now ('Political Order and ...


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Unless I'm misunderstanding what you mean, ratio of evidence is actually a terrible method because that would end up with an immediate decision as soon as any evidence is encountered for either side, giving a ratio of infinity for that side (something/0 is greater than any finite decision threshold). Try Gold and Shadlen 2007 for a review http://synapse....



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