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10

I don't know what precisely "nerve signals" is supposed to refer to, but neurons exchange information mainly via one pathway: neurotransmitters. And these do not travel the synaptic cleft via quantum tunnelling - obviously, since quantum tunnelling is a phenomenon on a quantum scale (concerning electrons), while neurotransmitters are far larger, at the ...


7

Good question! Apparently your question is on backward masking, which means that the masker follows the stimulus (probe) in time. Backward masking generally occurs at higher levels, typically the cortex. In case of visual stimuli this can be the primary visual cortex, or V1 (Mace et al. 2005). Ongoing processing of the probe is then thought to be ...


5

This is partially an aspect of the binding problem. Sensory information arrives in parallel as a variety of heterogeneous hints, (shapes, colors, motions, smells and sounds) encoded in partly modular systems. Typically many objects are present at once. The result is an urgent case of what has been labelled the binding problem. We must collect the hints, ...


4

This is likely related to other illusions of relative size, such as the Ebbinghaus (A) and Delboeuf (B) illusions. These illusions show that perception is not a 1:1 representation of retinal input. Instead it is a mental (re-)construction. As reviewed by Mrucek et al: an object's size is not inherently represented in the size of its projected ...


3

I have listed several artcils below for your reference: (Search terms: "oculometry pupillometry disorders of consciousness" in Google Scholar, nothing special): Grandchamp et al, 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00031 - A primary research article related to consciousness (mind wandering) where the authors investigated various pupillometric responses, among ...


3

what has always puzzled me is the neurobiological basis that gives rise to the phenomenon that we associate our bodies with ourselves – i.e., why does my brain think of my physical body as "me" and make me care for it? In other words, why is me me at this particular point in time and not some other body living e.g. centuries ago? Why do I not ...


3

Just speaking from personal experience, I've never experienced time distortion in my dreams as extremely as you describe. I've experienced moments scattered throughout narratives that would take longer than 20 minutes to elapse in real life, but since I never recall experiencing every single moment of those narratives, I wouldn't assume my sense of time had ...


3

There's a philosophical stance called panpsychism that addresses this question. Of course, there is no proof, but the fundamental question is really about humans. Is consciousness an intrinsic property of matter or does it emerge from complex matter structures? It's probably something we'll never know, but Tononi's model of consciousness leans towards ...


2

As @Steven Jeuris has said, the phenomena is best known as semantic satiation. It's not as popular a topic of study as it used to be (most references I can find for it come from the 1960s), but, to the best of my memory, the actual cause of the phenomena is down to how meaning is represented in the brain. I'll explain this by loosely paraphrasing an account ...


2

If you use a slightly different (and to my own experience more common) phrasing of this phenomenon to look for information you find immediate relevant results on Google. Rather than referring to words fading from consciousness I've usually heard it being stated as repeating a word often makes it lose its meaning. The first hit is a Wikipedia article on ...


2

Here's a study on Brain Response to One's Own Name in Vegetative State, Minimally Conscious State, and Locked-in Syndrome: http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=791093 Background A major challenge in the management of severely brain-injured patients with altered states of consciousness is to estimate their residual perception of the ...


2

There are different types of masking that may have different mechanisms. Even backward masking may mean: noise masking - such as when white noise is presented pattern masking - when target-resembling pattern of lines is shown metacontrast masking - when an object adjacent to target (but not occluding it) and highly different in contrast is used object ...


2

We should not confuse the psychological terminology of consciousness, the subconscious and the unconscious with the lay meaning of activities being performed consciously or subconsciously. The distinction between "conscious" learning and "subconscious" acquisition of linguistic knowledge goes back to the Monitor Model that linguist Stephen Krashen developed ...


2

This question has been unanswered for a long time and I will attempt to address the issues posed not one by one, as there are a great many questions, but with an overall working of the sensory nervous system with respect to topographic mapping. Moreover, the question uses a great many "suppose ifs" that have never, and most likely will never or cannot be ...


2

Short answer Consciousness is different between individuals and can change over time. Background Nelkin (1997) provides the following definition of consciousness: When philosophers and psychologists think about consciousness, they generally focus on one or more of three features: phenomenality (how experiences feel), intentionality (that experiences are ...


2

I don't know any such group in Italy but there is a group in Liege, Belgium which is called Coma Science Group. It consists of scientists of various disciplines and their main interest is understanding disorders of consciousness. Also their work has a clinical orientation as well. From your description, I think it will be interesting to you. Their website is ...


2

Under normal cirmumstances, death is indeed inconceivable. However, there is a rare psychiatric condition called Cotard Delusion or Cotard's syndrome where patients believe that they are dead. Strange as it may seem, there have been reports by such patients who deny the existence of parts of their bodies or claim to smell the rotting flesh of their allegedly ...


2

I was wondering what happens if we lose all electrical impulses in our nervous system for a minimum amount of time... if we have a complete elec. blackout, is our memory erased? Or is our consciousness based soly on the synapsis in our brain and does not care about the electrical state? If "we" includes other animals down to frogs, then the answer ...


1

I can't tell you the exact underlying mechanism unfortunately. I can analyze the illusion so as to approximate an answer. You can see that the effect is virtually absent when the white squares on the two rows are nearly similarly sized (rook - pawn). The effect is biggest when the white surfaces are most unequal (king - pawn). Additionally, to me, the ...


1

My suggestion would be that, as with all forms of mental imagery, short-term working memory circuits are responsible for keeping dreamt images active, i.e. in consciousness. Distraction by competing perceptual representations would cause immediate disruption of one's dreamt images; without such distraction, imagery in short-term memory typically starts to ...


1

What you describe here is two types of memory the declarative memory and the implicit memory. Declarative memory is consciously retrieved and stored. It is this kind of memory that is used to store historical facts. See below extract from wiki : Declarative memory (sometimes referred to as explicit memory) is one of two types of long-term human ...


1

Modern neuroscience has left behind the notion of mind-brain separation. Neuroscientists typically accept that everything from our breathing to our emotions and the complex sense of "self" that we have is a product of our brains. We have yet to discover exactly how/when/why the "mind" emerged from the brain, but we do know that most of our mental processing ...



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