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7

Good question! Apparently your question is on backward masking, which means that the masker follows the stimulus (probe) in time. Backward masking generally occurs at higher levels, typically the cortex. In case of visual stimuli this can be the primary visual cortex, or V1 (Mace et al. 2005). Ongoing processing of the probe is then thought to be ...


6

This is likely related to other illusions of relative size, such as the Ebbinghaus (A) and Delboeuf (B) illusions. These illusions show that perception is not a 1:1 representation of retinal input. Instead it is a mental (re-)construction. As reviewed by Mrucek et al: an object's size is not inherently represented in the size of its projected ...


5

This is partially an aspect of the binding problem. Sensory information arrives in parallel as a variety of heterogeneous hints, (shapes, colors, motions, smells and sounds) encoded in partly modular systems. Typically many objects are present at once. The result is an urgent case of what has been labelled the binding problem. We must collect the hints, ...


4

I have listed several articles below for your reference: (Search terms: "oculometry pupillometry disorders of consciousness" in Google Scholar, nothing special): Grandchamp et al, 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00031 - A primary research article related to consciousness (mind wandering) where the authors investigated various pupillometric responses, among ...


4

Your question is about the hard problem of consciousness, which is basically the question of how qualia can be explained in a mechanistic way. As alluded to by the name of the problem, it's hard to give a satisfactory answer. The answer right now is: we don't know. There are some theories about how qualia and consciousness could have a neural basis (see ...


4

what has always puzzled me is the neurobiological basis that gives rise to the phenomenon that we associate our bodies with ourselves – i.e., why does my brain think of my physical body as "me" and make me care for it? In other words, why is me me at this particular point in time and not some other body living e.g. centuries ago? Why do I not ...


3

Note: This is not intended to set a verbosity standard for answers, but to give a comprehensive example of what kind of information I am looking in order to further clarify the question. An answer including only a parallel of the principles of ecological psychology subsection would be sufficient, for example. Ecological psychology Ecological Psychology ...


3

Under normal cirmumstances, death is indeed inconceivable. However, there is a rare psychiatric condition called Cotard Delusion or Cotard's syndrome where patients believe that they are dead. Strange as it may seem, there have been reports by such patients who deny the existence of parts of their bodies or claim to smell the rotting flesh of their allegedly ...


3

I don't know any such group in Italy but there is a group in Liege, Belgium which is called Coma Science Group. It consists of scientists of various disciplines and their main interest is understanding disorders of consciousness. Also their work has a clinical orientation as well. From your description, I think it will be interesting to you. Their website is ...


3

As @Steven Jeuris has said, the phenomena is best known as semantic satiation. It's not as popular a topic of study as it used to be (most references I can find for it come from the 1960s), but, to the best of my memory, the actual cause of the phenomena is down to how meaning is represented in the brain. I'll explain this by loosely paraphrasing an account ...


3

If you use a slightly different (and to my own experience more common) phrasing of this phenomenon to look for information you find immediate relevant results on Google. Rather than referring to words fading from consciousness I've usually heard it being stated as repeating a word often makes it lose its meaning. The first hit is a Wikipedia article on ...


3

There are different types of masking that may have different mechanisms. Even backward masking may mean: noise masking - such as when white noise is presented pattern masking - when target-resembling pattern of lines is shown metacontrast masking - when an object adjacent to target (but not occluding it) and highly different in contrast is used object ...


2

We should not confuse the psychological terminology of consciousness, the subconscious and the unconscious with the lay meaning of activities being performed consciously or subconsciously. The distinction between "conscious" learning and "subconscious" acquisition of linguistic knowledge goes back to the Monitor Model that linguist Stephen Krashen developed ...


2

I can't tell you the exact underlying mechanism unfortunately. I can analyze the illusion so as to approximate an answer. You can see that the effect is virtually absent when the white squares on the two rows are nearly similarly sized (rook - pawn). The effect is biggest when the white surfaces are most unequal (king - pawn). Additionally, to me, the ...


2

This question has been unanswered for a long time and I will attempt to address the issues posed not one by one, as there are a great many questions, but with an overall working of the sensory nervous system with respect to topographic mapping. Moreover, the question uses a great many "suppose ifs" that have never, and most likely will never or cannot be ...


2

Short answer Consciousness is different between individuals and can change over time. Background Nelkin (1997) provides the following definition of consciousness: When philosophers and psychologists think about consciousness, they generally focus on one or more of three features: phenomenality (how experiences feel), intentionality (that experiences are ...


2

I was wondering what happens if we lose all electrical impulses in our nervous system for a minimum amount of time... if we have a complete elec. blackout, is our memory erased? Or is our consciousness based soly on the synapsis in our brain and does not care about the electrical state? If "we" includes other animals down to frogs, then the answer ...


2

Apparently I have a proclivity for long answers, but I thought I'd respond given the viewership on this question. We can whittle your question down to a more general form: Can my subjective experience be categorized? The answer to that basic question is of course! You made a categorization of how you felt in that moment, and you concluded that you had a ...


2

I don't think inverted prism goggles would be a satisfactory way to empirically test the thought experiment. A key axiom of the argument is that there are no physical changes to our brains or bodies; only the qualia have changed. In a goggles design, there would be a clear physical locus of the change (and we might reasonably call this part of your body for ...


2

Short answer: We don't know. Long answer: There are a few major lines of thinking on the subject currently. Cognitive closure: One common argument is that this question is simply not answerable - at least not by humans. By this view, it is possible that the creation of an artificial intelligence that even resembles humans sufficiently to suggest ...


1

This question has perplexed me for quite a while now. The problem with declaring an artificially intelligent machine 'conscious' is the very definition of consciousness. A quick google search for the definition for 'consciousness' returns 'the state of being awake and aware of one's surroundings'. This definition in my opinion is too vague to be extendable ...


1

Paul Thagard has been working with the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) and the Semantic Pointer Architecture (SPA) to create a biologically unified theory of consciousness. This is presented in the paper "Two theories of consciousness: Semantic pointer competition vs. information integration" where Thagard's theory is contrasted directly with Tonini's ...


1

The unusual feeling you've described here could be the variation of so called dissociative experiences, when a person's perception of the surrounding world and himself is distorted and therefore could evoke intense fear (and visa-versa). Quite often it could be the result of traumatic events in the past, which are not dangerous for a person in the present, ...


1

Most would call this an 'awakening'. There was a fad some years ago for going on courses to promote this state of awareness. I know because I went on some (and they worked!). The techniques vary but typically involved a repeated questioning of the 'goldfish bowl' and state of semi-hypnosis that we all tend to inhabit day-to-day. Some, such as "The Forum" ...


1

From my experience with Lucid Dreaming, a practice where people seek to be consciously aware in their dreams, searching for the term "lucid" or "lucidity" would be a good place to start. Lucid dreams vary wildly in their quality, content and level of control. Some very highly sought after lucid dreams, which are colloquially known as "epic" feature those ...


1

I feel that the label of consciousness is merely a semantic distinction that belongs to the realm of philosophy, not neuropsychology. Like Noam Chomsky mentioned in one of his talks hosted by Lawrence Krauss - we could also ask ourselves whether animals (e.g. dogs) are conscious. I'm not exactly sure, he mentioned that birds are said to "fly" in Enlgish but ...


1

My suggestion would be that, as with all forms of mental imagery, short-term working memory circuits are responsible for keeping dreamt images active, i.e. in consciousness. Distraction by competing perceptual representations would cause immediate disruption of one's dreamt images; without such distraction, imagery in short-term memory typically starts to ...


1

What you describe here is two types of memory the declarative memory and the implicit memory. Declarative memory is consciously retrieved and stored. It is this kind of memory that is used to store historical facts. See below extract from wiki : Declarative memory (sometimes referred to as explicit memory) is one of two types of long-term human ...


1

Modern neuroscience has left behind the notion of mind-brain separation. Neuroscientists typically accept that everything from our breathing to our emotions and the complex sense of "self" that we have is a product of our brains. We have yet to discover exactly how/when/why the "mind" emerged from the brain, but we do know that most of our mental processing ...



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