Hot answers tagged connectionism
To my knowledge, with respect to the context of the question, the first neural-like model of computations capable of learning – or, for that matter, computational model of neural processing and learning – has been put forward in McCulloch/Pitts (1943), as is also acknowledged in some of the texts about Turing's unorganized machines (›A-/B-type neural ...
Very detailed estimates for almost all of your points, for cat, can be found in Binzegger, T., Douglas, R. J., & Martin, K. A. C. (2004). A quantitative map of the circuit of cat primary cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(39), 8441-8453.
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