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11

In a two-alternative forced choice task with Mongolian Gerbils, Illango et al. (2010) compared the effectiveness of appetitive, aversive, and a combination of appetitive and aversive reinforcers. They conclude that the combination of appetitive and aversive reinforcers led to the highest speed of acquisition to maximum possible performance and delayed ...


10

I wouldn't worry about "running out" of room in our brain. We often forget things just because we don't need to know them, similar to . There are plenty of human savants that display apparently "unlimited" capacities of certain forms of memory, such as Hyperthymesia where one has a seemingly perfect amount of recall of autobiographical details (not to be ...


9

As Schroedinger's Cat pointed out, there's no clear dividing line between "brainwashing" and the normal processes of growing up in or assimilating into a culture or social group. Even in the case of deliberate, forced procedures, it can be unclear -- for example, the US military has recruits do drills and engage in synchronized practices that we know to ...


8

What you're thinking of is called an Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule. Different Reinforcement schedules have different effects, variable ratio in particular seems to be what you're getting at: a reinforcement schedule in which the number of responses necessary to produce reinforcement varies from trial to trial What's important is the behavior is ...


7

First, the concept of optimality of a learning curve is not well defined. You can measure at least 3 different aspects of learning: Speed of learning Time before extinction Performance at peak Of course, there may be other measures as well, and any combination of such measure may also be a legitimate measure for certain uses. Conditioned Taste Aversion ...


7

For sake of covering all my bases, I'll begin with brief, simple definitions (that I'm sure you probably know, but can't say for others). Much of the material is heavily paraphrased or explained in references listed. Positive reinforcement is the process by which certain consequences of a response increase the probability that the response will recur. ...


6

This is just lay theorizing, but I would try and find a measure of my attitudes at a certain point in time (e.g., an old journal entry, a blog post, an essay) and compare the reasoning in that to current reasoning. If I identify huge changes in personal ideology between that old bit of material and current thinking, I should perhaps ask a third-party to ...


6

I think there is a strong argument that everyone is brainwashed, in the sense of having accepted ideas and principles that they cannot provide a-priori justification for. It is something of the definition of a worldview, which we all need to survive. Even if you take it to the perspective of "have we had our worldview changed by external sources", the ...


5

I'm not sure what you're asking. If it's found that there's awareness of the relationships in the experiment then typically it's argued that's not conditioning and the behaviour is modified through insight. It's been a bone of contention with respect to classical conditioning and humans in the past. You might want to look at Lovibond and Shanks (2002). I ...


5

Try an internet search on animal learning probability. Although that might not be what you want because it sounds like you specifically want insight as opposed to learning in general. Your particular example is problematic because you're inferring far too much on the subjects part. They might prefer B because they just want more of anything offered. The ...


4

I think the field of persuasive communication is relevant for your answer, as well as research into the efficacy of psychotherapy. Customers trust advertising if it is communicated by: attractive persons credible experts Psychotherapy is more effective if: the therapist believes that his methods are effective (!) patient and therapist share the same ...


3

If you think of the stimulus being represented by a distributed set of features (Tanifuji et al., 2001), then I would not say it was a failure to discriminate. During the conditioned response training for Albert, all features were present as the stimuli. It wasn't that he couldn't discriminate the features, just that each of the features were trained as ...


3

I believe these two beautiful articles target just what you are looking for: Niv, Y., Joel, D., Meilijson, I., & Ruppin, E. (2008). Adaptive Behavior Evolution of Reinforcement Learning in Uncertain Environments : A Simple Explanation for Complex... doi:10.1177/10597123020101001 Shafir, Reich, Tsur, Erev & Lotem, 2008: Perceptual accuracy and ...


3

This type of research is fairly new in the animal domain, so I guess it would be difficult to find a review unless you use keywords for specific cognitive functions and a species (e.g. "decision making" AND "rat"). This link is probably of interest: Rats match humans in decision making that involves combining different sensory cues Also note that rats ...


2

'Reinforcement' is anything that increases the chances that an organism with repeat a behavior. When you are teaching a behavior, in the beginning, eliciting behavior takes a lot of reinforcement. So, for example, if you want to teach you dog to come to you every time you go to the back door, you feed him a cookie when you go to the back door. After a while ...


2

This LOP diagram explains it pretty well, acoustic information is remembered moderately well as it has moderate processing done on it to help you remember it, but as you can see, semantic is the best way to remember stuff, something is semantic if it's understood well or has meaning to you, so the best way to learn it is it to make sure that you understand ...


1

Nostalgia for fond memories commonly produces positive emotion (for further review, see Zhou, Wildschut, Sedikides, Chen, & Vingerhoets, 2012). As for the increase in your appreciation of these particular puns, I've mentioned in a very recent answer of mine to another very recent question about humor that positive emotion alone may encourage the sense ...


1

There's a great 2012 paper by A. Kheifets and Randy Gallistel showing a "probability sense" in animals. I love the paper's title: 'mice take calculated risks'. It's well worth reading. abstract: Animals successfully navigate the world despite having only incomplete information about behaviorally important contingencies. It is an open question to ...


1

Perhaps when it comes to operant conditioning, it may be helpful to think in terms of targeted behavior first. A student learning about this concept will be helped if they thought of the behavior being targeted for reinforcement. So consider: What is the behavior being targeted for reinforcement? Is the behavior being targeted, being targeted for an ...



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