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It actually has nothing to do with having an experimental and control group. A double dissociation refers to documenting two distinct patterns of impairment in two different groups or individuals, proving that two functions are neurologically distinct. For example, someone with hippocampal damage will have trouble forming declarative memories (memories you ...


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There are many answers to this question, because this is an essential research topic of any dual process model (of which there are quit a lot). Most of them posit in some way that whether people rely on "System 1" or "System 2" (or whatever they are called in the respective flavor of the model) is some combination of motivation (Is person X motivated to ...


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From what I remember from this field, there's a long-standing debate on whether heuristics are "irrational"/"suboptimal" between D. Kahneman and G. Gigerenzer. The Gigerenzer's point of view has been well put in the wiki: Gigerenzer argues that heuristics are not irrational or always second-best to optimization, as the accuracy-effort trade-off view ...


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In addition to @UmerVakil's great answer that general preference for system 1 thinking is often associated with mental effort minimization, I'd like to add that the more modern view is that people switch back and forth (sometimes called "motivated tactician") for a variety of possible reasons, so the idea that people might learn to be cognitively "lazy" is ...


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Yes, if I understood your question correctly, there is a great deal of research in Social Psychology about humans being "cognitive misers". In layman's terms, it means that humans find mental effort aversive and hence tend to rely on heuristics, categories or mental shortcuts while making judgements or while making decisions. The theory comes within the ...


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An attitude can actually exist at two different levels. Explicit attitudes are attitudes that are at the conscious level, are deliberately formed and are easy to self-report. On the other hand, implicit attitudes are attitudes that are at the unconscious level, are involuntarily formed and are typically unknown to us.


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I'm not sure if this is what you are looking for, but the big umbrella term in the literature for puzzles like the Tower of Hanoi is problem solving. A Google Scholar search for "tower of hanoi" and "problem solving" generates ~5000 hits. Another related puzzle is the Tower of London, and that Scholar search generates an additional ~5000.


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In psychology, we call people's attitudes towards things "preferences", and the emotional experience associated with preference is referred to as "affect", or more specifically, "valence", which is positive or negative. As eluded to in the question, there is a genetic predisposition for certain preferences, such as sugar (sweetness), and some aversions, ...


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If I am reading this correctly you are essentially asking where is the consciousness located in the brain. The system would be the RAS (Reticular Activating System) and you can read up it on the good ol' wakapedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reticular_activating_system#Attention I'd also like to note that it is not specific to humans.



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