# Tag Info

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I would imagine that artificial intelligence and any other kind of cognitive modelling of behaviour or the brain would fall under that category. Essentially, anything that isn't about directly describing human behaviour, but is about modelling it computationally. Look up the research on Theoretical Neuroscience, it's really quite fascinating. There is also ...

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There are several approaches to theoretical neuroscience. I am currently taking the physics/mathematics approach: modelling the currents in neurons and coupling several neurons together through differential equations. In Computer Science, the tendency is more towards machine learning: Bayesian statistics, artificial neural networks, signal processing, ...

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A few bits of useful jargon come to mind... Low cognitive complexity may lead to simplistic and absolutist thinking, which one may also refer to as splitting or "black-and-white" thinking (because there's no recognition of "grey areas"). Need for closure and low openness to experience may lead to resistance to change, which is a somewhat less pejorative ...

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Schema and Heuristic are two different things- not really related to one another, so I'm not sure asking for the difference between the two makes sense. That said- A Schema is a cognitive framework for storing information and relating it together. Schemas form the basis for knowledge in the head. A Heuristic is a mechanism for solving problems. Therefore, ...

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A heuristic consists of preferences that help you decide in a situation where you do not have enough information or do not care enough to make an informed decision. For example, when you want to buy yoghurt, but are no nutritionist, you might decide on which yoghurt you buy by the familiarity of the brand name (you prefer the familiar, this is called the ...

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In my country, studying educational psychology is a postgraduate qualification. It implies that you have completed an undergraduate sequence in psychology, and therefore would have already been exposed to the basics of statistics and research methods (e.g., univariate, bivariate statistics, significance testing, various ANOVA, regression, study designs, ...

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Cross Validated has a long list of answers to, "What book would you recommend for non-statistician scientists?" including an answer from our own @JeromyAnglim regarding SPSS for psychologists. Jeromy has also listed a number of good recommendations in response to The current recommended text for statistics in behavioural sciences, and @Mike suggested one for ...

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The actual act of "Trying to see only the sentence which confirms his beliefs" would generally be called confirmation bias.

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I have a liver disease which causes fatigue. In 2008, I was prescribed Provigil (modafinil) to help with my stamina. After that date, my previously mediocre work performance improved, earning me promotions and raises. In 2010, the liver disease won out, and I was forced to stop working. About a year after my liver transplant in 2011, the doctors allowed me ...

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Some ancient historical precedent exists for preferring $10$, but also for $6$, so that's mixed support from Wikipedia on perfect numbers. As for honest-to-goodness modern research, here's one quick result on prevalence of round prices in marketing (Klumpp, Brorsen, & Anderson, 2005): it's higher than for non-round prices. Some other results are reviewed ...

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You are asking for the aesthetics of numbers. So let's look at them: The One is just a crooked stick. Not very pretty. The Four, Six, Seven and Nine look like they'll fall over in a minute. Totally unbalanced. The Zero and Eight are too smooth and perfectly symmetrical to be attractive on a human level. The Three is nice, but looks too much like female ...

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There are numbers - as in groups of objects - that are easily divisible so may have the appeal of symmetry. Other numbers may align with the number system. However, there are different number systems. The ancient Egyptians counted on their fingers using the each knuckle of the four fingers sequentially, so 3 knuckles x 4 fingers allowed them to count to ...

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I'm not the best man to answer the question – I don't have any reference; I do have some logic behind what I'm saying. Many years ago, very few people were educated, very few knew how to do math, but they all had money. And they had to count it, and do some math. If I have 10 employees, each wants 5 coins, I have 1000 coins, I pay 50 and I still have 950 ...

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It's a little unclear to me from what you've said that your efforts are truly affecting your brother's ideas. It's also unclear whether those ideas are objectively bad, or whether you should be trying to change them. In general, we have to be careful to avoid recommending specific actions for specific people here. That being said, the general phenomenon you ...

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Unless the advertisement is actually advertising the person's attractiveness directly, this should be a peripheral issue. Consider Wikipedia's description of the central route: Central-route processes involve scrutiny of persuasive communication (e.g., a speech or an advertisement) to determine the arguments' merits. Under these conditions, a person's ...

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From experience and some knowledge gathered from all over the place, yes and no. For example, if you want to do two things that are both mind-engaging, you'll probably end up doing both sloppily, or one much better than the other. But if one task is mundane and other mind engaging, like listening to music and doing math problem, or listening to a lecture and ...

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In many languages, there is no word similar in meaning to the English word mind. In my opinion that fact illustrates an inherent problem with the scientific use of that word: that mind does not even denote a unified concept at all. The Oxford English Dictionary lists the following current meanings of mind, among others ...

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There is some research into the efficacy of self-help versus therapy. Usually these studies find that self-help is less effective or not effective at all (e.g. Ehlers et al., 2003, to give just one example), although the relative effectiveness depends on the type and severity of disorders. For example, fear of flying is probably easier to self-treat than a ...

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Wikipedia is often a good place to start for basic questions like these. Wikipedia has separate pages devoted to the mind, the brain, and even the mind–body problem, which is one example of the many theoretical challenges implied by the distinctions between "mind" and "brain". Simply stated: The brain is a physical organ. It's entirely possible that much ...

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Here are a few theories and sources I happen to know that relate to your questions: Contextual cues aid recall of context-dependent memories. Plenty of research exists on these topics. An easily digestible example may be found through PsychCentral (Nauert, 2009). We have another great question about context-switching here already that you might want to ...

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Sure, to some extent mind reading "implicitly implies" brain reading. For instance, if you were reading someone's mind by their behavior or their heart rate, it would be through their brain's effect on those organs. But the brain is a physical object, whereas the concept of the mind is more obfuscated. Some people emphasize the experiential aspects of the ...

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First, biological features do not always arise from some intrinsic benefit. They can also be byproducts of other adaptations, or spandrels. That being said, one example of a possible benefit is specialization. For instance, birds will develop asymmetries in their visual system based on light inputs to their outward-facing eye (one eye faces the eggshell, ...

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I think the field of persuasive communication is relevant for your answer, as well as research into the efficacy of psychotherapy. Customers trust advertising if it is communicated by: attractive persons credible experts Psychotherapy is more effective if: the therapist believes that his methods are effective (!) patient and therapist share the same ...

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I have no experience at cognitive sciences formally, but what comes next is result of my own experience. Firstly anyone can say, you can try and see. But then, humans can multitask and it is a matter of choice. So when you keep your listening device and go about doing other works, if you do not condition your mind, what happens is known only to you, but if ...

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There are now many full-length books that focus on this deep, complex question about human nature/psychology and note newer/ongoing/active research in the area, some of it cited in them. Why people believe weird things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time Shermer and Gould Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud Park ...

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Pseudoscience based on false premises and misuse of statistics, I'd say at first glance...but let's take a closer look at this article. First, I'm seeing among the references a lot of articles from journals with "alternative" in their titles, and other sources that strike me as either vaguely fishy or otherwise somewhat tangential. Not what I'd hope to get ...

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Schwarz (1999) reviews a variety of research on frequency estimation scales. That's not exactly the same kind of scale, but both request estimation of a count variable by choice among ordered, polytomized response options. Spector (1976, 1980, 1992) may also have something useful to say on this topic: he researched the effect of providing even vs. uneven ...

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There is a lot of context to extract from this: For example if "using the X tool" requires a lot of time, it would be time-consuming to actually go by yourself and try for hours, when you could instead ask for help from someone who already has some knowledge of it. Also, people are all different, some people want to know how "things work in their ...

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