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15

"Science" refers to a methodology for obtaining knowledge, and often to the knowledge itself as well. Science is often confused with another term "technology", that refers to the application of such knowledge for practical uses. Some people might incorrectly refer to "computers" and "cars" as examples of "science", when in fact they are examples of ...


9

Yes, if I understood your question correctly, there is a great deal of research in Social Psychology about humans being "cognitive misers". In layman's terms, it means that humans find mental effort aversive and hence tend to rely on heuristics, categories or mental shortcuts while making judgements or while making decisions. The theory comes within the ...


7

Because it has been a few years since Jeromy's original answer, and because I just read a very apt article, I will venture an update on the state of the field with respect to the BPI's validity. Overall, despite more research into brain training and Lumosity, there is little to no peer-reviewed evidence supporting the Lumosity BPI's validity, nor evidence ...


7

No, intuition is not related to ESP in modern cognitive science. A modern view on intuitive thinking While ESP certainly retains its pseudoscience status (e.g., Rouder and Morey, 2011), intuition and intuitive thinking has been used in the psychological literature in evolving ways over the years. Outside the heydays of Skinnerian radical behaviorism, the ...


7

Can We Compare Subjective Experience? Consider this pain scale, variations of which are commonly used in medical settings: If two people answer "6 - distressing, miserable pain," can we reliably compare the subjective pain intensities between the two individuals? How would we know that one person's experience of "distressing, miserable pain" is the same ...


7

The answer to your question is yes, our memories are very malleable. Look into the research of Elizabeth Loftus. She is kind of the pioneer on this topic and has done a ton of research into false memories. Here is a TED talk by her that you might find interesting and here is a review article


6

There is another common expression: "You never get a second chance to make a first impression." The stability of first impressions is empirically sound: Once formed, first impressions tend to be stable. A review of the literature on the accuracy and impact of first impressions on rater-based assessments found that raters' first impressions are ...


6

I think what you're talking about is worry and/or rumination, both of which describe a perseverative and repetitive thinking style (e.g., Watkins, 2008). Worry is future-oriented whereas rumination is past-oriented. We don't understand the mechanisms all that well at the level of analysis you're interested in, but I'll present some brain-level theories/data ...


6

Psychophysiology is totally outside of my wheelhouse, but here it goes… Those feelings in your chest, face, arms, etc. aren't an illusion. Indeed, it's long been argued that physiological arousal (in your body) is a core component of emotional experience (e.g., James, 1884; Russell, 1980)--alongside feelings of pleasure and displeasure. Moreover, that ...


5

There was a target article published in Brain and Behavioral Sciences on a theory of art appreciation (Bullott & Reber, 2013) that I read for some reason…but it looks like it will finally be relevant! According to this theory, one of the ways that you might come to appreciate art is through basic exposure, which involves perceptual exploration of the ...


5

My answer is probably a weird hodgepodge of sometimes poorly explained stuff, but hopefully it's coherent enough :P For many decades in psychology, we've had a mechanistic stimulus-organism-response understanding of the brain. That is, a stimulus triggers an internal psychological process, which produces some behavioral response. One of the major ...


5

Most of your list fits for symptoms of lack of will to cooperate. Lack of will to cooperate is likely triggered by lack of sympathy, which again may be triggered by lack of trust. I say 'may' because there are several possible reasons that such situations may occur. Lack of will to cooperate may also be due to personality traits, especially due to low score ...


5

Can any arbitrary [able bodied] human become a genius across multiple disciplines or at least one discipline assuming that they have some Secondary Eduction in these disciplines? No, not all able bodied humans will be able to be become a genius across one or more disciplines. Assuming genius in this context means someone achieving international ...


5

One of the older theories suggested that a person literally runs out of brain-fuel when they hit the wall (Baumeister et al, 1998). They called this state "ego depletion" and it refers to the kind of mental burnout you are talking about. There is currently a lot of research activity on this topic because we (psychologists) assumed for over a decade that some ...


5

Takeuchi et al. (2011) had participants in an fMRI perform three tasks in order to measure creativity, working memory and intelligence. S-A creativity test as a measure of creativity (Society For Creative Minds, 1969). Verbal n-back as a measure of working memory (Calicott et al., 1999). Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrix as a measure of intelligence ...


5

Short answer We do think with 'both', and there is evidence to suggest that we need some sort of conscious representation of our thoughts in order to reason about our surroundings. Emotion itself is not enough. Longer answer: We do think with our emotional reactions, and we also think with words. When we think with emotions, these are our 'instincts' ...


5

NLP (Neurolinguistic Programming) is a pseudoscience at worst, and not a science, but "an approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy" at best. There is little scientific research, and no reliable scientific findings, supporting the effectiveness of NLP, and the evidence is probably best interpreted as speaking against the ...


5

I don't think the idea of a male/female brain is well established in the neurosciences. If you read a book like Delusions of Gender you'll get a critical perspective on the status of sex differences in the brain. At some level, sex differences in behaviour must be mediated through the brain. But there are major debates about the degree to which such ...


4

In psychology, we call people's attitudes towards things "preferences", and the emotional experience associated with preference is referred to as "affect", or more specifically, "valence", which is positive or negative. As eluded to in the question, there is a genetic predisposition for certain preferences, such as sugar (sweetness), and some aversions, ...


4

What you describe has some similarities with the primacy effect (but I take Arnon's point that the phrase as you describe seems to relate specifically to first impressions in person perception). There is a lot of memory research which relates the order of presentation of a set of stimuli to the degree of recall. The primacy effect is the name given for the ...


4

From what I remember from this field, there's a long-standing debate on whether heuristics are "irrational"/"suboptimal" between D. Kahneman and G. Gigerenzer. The Gigerenzer's point of view has been well put in the wiki: Gigerenzer argues that heuristics are not irrational or always second-best to optimization, as the accuracy-effort trade-off view ...


4

In addition to @UmerVakil's great answer that general preference for system 1 thinking is often associated with mental effort minimization, I'd like to add that the more modern view is that people switch back and forth (sometimes called "motivated tactician") for a variety of possible reasons, so the idea that people might learn to be cognitively "lazy" is ...


4

I think Daniel Kahneman calls this the Availability heuristic, a cognitive bias explaining the tendency to weigh more recent (more available) information as more pertinent when making beliefs, reasoning or drawing causal relations.


4

The interactions among several factors probably account for variability in reactivity to stressful events, including genetics, epigenetics, early life experience, and culture (e.g., Alexander et al., 2009; Boyce & Ellis, 2005; Francis, Frances, Liu, & Meaney, 2006; Gunthert et al., 2007; Meaney, 2001). And individual differences are observable at ...


4

You probably mean instant quantity recognition Counting requires a rather complex high-level process. For an animal to count you'd need: Memory Consciousness (to access and manipulate that memory) Basic algebra skills Some basic semantic abstraction mechanism (ie, language) which will probably have to be recursive as well. Some symbolic mechanism ...


4

A human brain recognises letters by their constituent features (sub-letter parts). It is modelized by a pandemonium model where printed information is extracted locally then globally. In the letter recognition literature, this type of feature-based hierarchical model competes with template matching theories (with an advantage to the pandemonium-like models ...


4

There are many areas of the brain that are associated with planning complex behavior. This is because planning and executing are mediated by the brain's capacity for executive functioning, and EF is further associated with many areas of the brain -- in this case, the the frontal lobes, the prefrontal cortex, the caudate nucleus, and the putamen all seem to ...



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