Hot answers tagged

15

"Science" refers to a methodology for obtaining knowledge, and often to the knowledge itself as well. Science is often confused with another term "technology", that refers to the application of such knowledge for practical uses. Some people might incorrectly refer to "computers" and "cars" as examples of "science", when in fact they are examples of ...


10

The answer to your question is yes, our memories are very malleable. Look into the research of Elizabeth Loftus. She is kind of the pioneer on this topic and has done a ton of research into false memories. Here is a TED talk by her that you might find interesting and here is a review article


9

Yes, if I understood your question correctly, there is a great deal of research in Social Psychology about humans being "cognitive misers". In layman's terms, it means that humans find mental effort aversive and hence tend to rely on heuristics, categories or mental shortcuts while making judgements or while making decisions. The theory comes within the ...


6

There is another common expression: "You never get a second chance to make a first impression." The stability of first impressions is empirically sound: Once formed, first impressions tend to be stable. A review of the literature on the accuracy and impact of first impressions on rater-based assessments found that raters' first impressions are ...


6

Psychophysiology is totally outside of my wheelhouse, but here it goes… Those feelings in your chest, face, arms, etc. aren't an illusion. Indeed, it's long been argued that physiological arousal (in your body) is a core component of emotional experience (e.g., James, 1884; Russell, 1980)--alongside feelings of pleasure and displeasure. Moreover, that ...


6

I think what you're talking about is worry and/or rumination, both of which describe a perseverative and repetitive thinking style (e.g., Watkins, 2008). Worry is future-oriented whereas rumination is past-oriented. We don't understand the mechanisms all that well at the level of analysis you're interested in, but I'll present some brain-level theories/data ...


6

Seems that you are asking: I am really interested just in the way the brain creates new electrical potentials, "just on his own." and whether [sic] the brain would 'stop working', implying that there no longer is any neural activity due to the lack of external impulses. If you were to theoretically disconnect the brain from all sensory input, ...


5

Short answer We do think with 'both', and there is evidence to suggest that we need some sort of conscious representation of our thoughts in order to reason about our surroundings. Emotion itself is not enough. Longer answer: We do think with our emotional reactions, and we also think with words. When we think with emotions, these are our 'instincts' ...


5

There was a target article published in Brain and Behavioral Sciences on a theory of art appreciation (Bullott & Reber, 2013) that I read for some reason…but it looks like it will finally be relevant! According to this theory, one of the ways that you might come to appreciate art is through basic exposure, which involves perceptual exploration of the ...


5

My answer is probably a weird hodgepodge of sometimes poorly explained stuff, but hopefully it's coherent enough :P For many decades in psychology, we've had a mechanistic stimulus-organism-response understanding of the brain. That is, a stimulus triggers an internal psychological process, which produces some behavioral response. One of the major ...


5

Most of your list fits for symptoms of lack of will to cooperate. Lack of will to cooperate is likely triggered by lack of sympathy, which again may be triggered by lack of trust. I say 'may' because there are several possible reasons that such situations may occur. Lack of will to cooperate may also be due to personality traits, especially due to low score ...


5

Can any arbitrary [able bodied] human become a genius across multiple disciplines or at least one discipline assuming that they have some Secondary Eduction in these disciplines? No, not all able bodied humans will be able to be become a genius across one or more disciplines. Assuming genius in this context means someone achieving international ...


5

NLP (Neurolinguistic Programming) is a pseudoscience at worst, and not a science, but "an approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy" at best. There is little scientific research, and no reliable scientific findings, supporting the effectiveness of NLP, and the evidence is probably best interpreted as speaking against the ...


5

I don't think the idea of a male/female brain is well established in the neurosciences. If you read a book like Delusions of Gender you'll get a critical perspective on the status of sex differences in the brain. At some level, sex differences in behaviour must be mediated through the brain. But there are major debates about the degree to which such ...


5

There is no specific term for this entire phenomenon because there is more than one psychological theory playing a role in your overindulgence or "binge". Fatigue from repetitiveness, durability bias, and habituation all play a huge role in determining how long you can listen to a certain song before its gets repetitive and boring. On the other hand, ...


4

I think Daniel Kahneman calls this the Availability heuristic, a cognitive bias explaining the tendency to weigh more recent (more available) information as more pertinent when making beliefs, reasoning or drawing causal relations.


4

In psychology, we call people's attitudes towards things "preferences", and the emotional experience associated with preference is referred to as "affect", or more specifically, "valence", which is positive or negative. As eluded to in the question, there is a genetic predisposition for certain preferences, such as sugar (sweetness), and some aversions, ...


4

In addition to @UmerVakil's great answer that general preference for system 1 thinking is often associated with mental effort minimization, I'd like to add that the more modern view is that people switch back and forth (sometimes called "motivated tactician") for a variety of possible reasons, so the idea that people might learn to be cognitively "lazy" is ...


4

From what I remember from this field, there's a long-standing debate on whether heuristics are "irrational"/"suboptimal" between D. Kahneman and G. Gigerenzer. The Gigerenzer's point of view has been well put in the wiki: Gigerenzer argues that heuristics are not irrational or always second-best to optimization, as the accuracy-effort trade-off view ...


4

What you describe has some similarities with the primacy effect (but I take Arnon's point that the phrase as you describe seems to relate specifically to first impressions in person perception). There is a lot of memory research which relates the order of presentation of a set of stimuli to the degree of recall. The primacy effect is the name given for the ...


4

There are many areas of the brain that are associated with planning complex behavior. This is because planning and executing are mediated by the brain's capacity for executive functioning, and EF is further associated with many areas of the brain -- in this case, the the frontal lobes, the prefrontal cortex, the caudate nucleus, and the putamen all seem to ...


4

The interactions among several factors probably account for variability in reactivity to stressful events, including genetics, epigenetics, early life experience, and culture (e.g., Alexander et al., 2009; Boyce & Ellis, 2005; Francis, Frances, Liu, & Meaney, 2006; Gunthert et al., 2007; Meaney, 2001). And individual differences are observable at ...


4

First, we need to distinguish between those punishments brought about by nature and those brought about by society and law. Many actions in nature have an implicit consequence, such as harm, that may come back on the performer. Regardless of whether a particular person or group agrees that the consequence is "right" or "just", jumping off a high cliff and ...


4

You probably mean instant quantity recognition Counting requires a rather complex high-level process. For an animal to count you'd need: Memory Consciousness (to access and manipulate that memory) Basic algebra skills Some basic semantic abstraction mechanism (ie, language) which will probably have to be recursive as well. Some symbolic mechanism ...


4

Social Order and Hierarchy. As Humans our brains are designed to see where we fit in the social order. If someones success is perceived as a threat, it can lead to anxiety and fear from the person whom is resentful and jealous. While in the modern world there is no need for this fear, our ancestors had to compete within their tribe(s) for ...


3

Metacognitive therapy has been proposed to improve disorganized thinking. Metacognition can be thought of as our ability to "think about thinking." Essentially, it's a person's ability to organize their thoughts into a coherent narrative, reflect on their thoughts and experiences, take the perspective of others, and make sense of the world. Individuals with ...


3

As the author of the blog post you refer to, I can state that at the time of writing (early 2011) there were not too many studies reporting on this specific topic, which is why I reported on the single study I found at the time (Binkley et al. 2009). However, I advise you to read a follow-up study by a different group of researchers (Sharif and Maletic ...


3

It actually has nothing to do with having an experimental and control group. A double dissociation refers to documenting two distinct patterns of impairment in two different groups or individuals, proving that two functions are neurologically distinct. For example, someone with hippocampal damage will have trouble forming declarative memories (memories you ...



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible