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9

Yes, if I understood your question correctly, there is a great deal of research in Social Psychology about humans being "cognitive misers". In layman's terms, it means that humans find mental effort aversive and hence tend to rely on heuristics, categories or mental shortcuts while making judgements or while making decisions. The theory comes within the ...


8

First I have to say that the wavelengths of light are on a totally different order of magnitude than sound. So the parallel drawn in your question "do light waves, for example one with the same wave length as a mid-C and another with a mid-F wave, look nicely together?" may seem logical, but is on closer inspection not easily maintained. Instead, one way to ...


8

In general humans are excellent at seeing patterns in randomness. It seems like you have attached special meaning to certain patterns. It seems similar to the way people form superstitions. Checking the time may also be something that we do so regularly and automatically that we do not know how often we do it. And it may be that the pattern confirming ...


8

Even among researchers there is widespread misunderstanding of core statistics ideas. Look at the work by Geoff Cumming. Example paper title: 'Researchers misunderstand confidence intervals and standard error bars.'


7

"Fixing" (compensating for) a cognitive bias means "improving the result", so by definition, the result is always better. The drawback, as stated, is in the time spent getting there. Having said that, there is a lot of research on rational / conscious thought vs. heuristic / unconscious decision-making, and this research reveals many scenarios where ...


7

I think the concept you are looking for is Tacit Knowledge (aslo known as implicit knowledge). The main reason that users cannot articulate what they want, is that they do not have any conscious access to the knowledge they have acquired over the many years of practice. That’s why an iterative process is needed to bring the tacit knowledge on users ...


7

Short answer: We don't really know yet, but we should know soon. Long answer: There has been much research about the ego-depletion effect. The effect has been found in many published studies. As cited in APS Observer (2014): A recent meta-analysis revealed a medium effect size (d = 0.62) across 198 tests of the ego-depletion effect (Hagger, Wood, ...


7

At some level, it's true that psychology reduces to biology and chemistry. If it didn't, then the widely-accepted view of physicialism/materialism would be wrong. But just because psychology can (in theory) be reduced to biochemistry, reductionism may not be the most productive way to approach the problem, for a couple of reasons: The causes of ...


7

The diseases and mental dysfunctions that have been studied are Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, ADHD, Substance Dependence, Autism, Multiple Sclerosis and Schizophrenia (with and without tardive dyskenisia). I'll add more specific statistics (such as trials required to acquire first rule) and better references later. In the meantime, during my ...


7

Because it has been a few years since Jeromy's original answer, and because I just read a very apt article, I will venture an update on the state of the field with respect to the BPI's validity. Overall, despite more research into brain training and Lumosity, there is little to no peer-reviewed evidence supporting the Lumosity BPI's validity, nor evidence ...


7

No, intuition is not related to ESP in modern cognitive science. A modern view on intuitive thinking While ESP certainly retains its pseudoscience status (e.g., Rouder and Morey, 2011), intuition and intuitive thinking has been used in the psychological literature in evolving ways over the years. Outside the heydays of Skinnerian radical behaviorism, the ...


7

Can We Compare Subjective Experience? Consider this pain scale, variations of which are commonly used in medical settings: If two people answer "6 - distressing, miserable pain," can we reliably compare the subjective pain intensities between the two individuals? How would we know that one person's experience of "distressing, miserable pain" is the same ...


6

I'm not sure how helpful my answer will be, but I get my "news" from scanning journals related to my interests. I look through 1) broad review journals, 2) broad empirical journals and 3) more specific empirical journals. In general, I find that popular media outlets do a poor job of reporting on research in psychology/neuroscience (but hopefully someone ...


6

This is actually a pretty complicated question. In general, there isn't a lot of consistent evidence that would suggest that discrete emotions like anger have stereotyped response patterns. Anger is a fairly heterogeneous emotion category, meaning that it may not look the same (and have the same outcomes) in any given situation. Consequently, there may not ...


6

In brain damage/lesion studies, a double dissociation gives evidence that function A and B are, to some degree, implemented in different regions of the brain. In general, a double dissociation shows evidence that A and B are independent of each other. This is a different kind of claim than saying that function A is implemented in brain region X. For this ...


6

Moral Judgement: From Wikipedia: ... moral judgment ... is "the ability to reason correctly about what 'ought' to be done in a specific situation." Research on moral judgement was pioneered by Jean Piaget, summarized in his book "The Moral Judgment of the Child" (1932), in which he implies that moral development levels off in adolescence. Piaget ...


6

The broad topic is norm theory. Kahnemann & Miller (1986) give a nice overview of the topic. The specific effect is a contrast effect. Higgins & Lurie (1983) have an experiment which matches the situation nicely. In their experiment, subjects read a series of short stories describing the sentences handed out by various judges for similar crimes. ...


6

Short answer: Dual-process, mindfulness and flow theory are related by way of attention theory. Two previous posts that may be of interest are "What is the relation between concepts, constructs and measures?" and "How can we realize when a sociological question is impossible to answer?". Commensurability This is an apt example of what Thomas Kuhn would ...


6

Psychophysiology is totally outside of my wheelhouse, but here it goes… Those feelings in your chest, face, arms, etc. aren't an illusion. Indeed, it's long been argued that physiological arousal (in your body) is a core component of emotional experience (e.g., James, 1884; Russell, 1980)--alongside feelings of pleasure and displeasure. Moreover, that ...


5

There a are globally two perspectives the discrete perspective uses a categorization system. There are many different systems, with more or less core emotions and sub-emotions. As the one shown in your post. the dimensional perspective considers one, mainly two, sometimes more, scales to identify an emotional value. Valence (happy/sad) and arousal ...


5

Short answer: Behaviorism treats the human brain/mind like a black box whose internal processes cannot be known. As such, behaviorists claim that it only makes sense to study the association between a given stimulus and the behavioral output it produces. Cognitivists, on the other hand, examine internal mental processes (attention, executive control, ...


5

That moment is often called the "aha moment", the Eureka effect, or more generally, insight. There is literature on it, but as you might expect, it is a pretty difficult thing to produce in a lab. Some references: The AHA! experience: Creativity through emergent binding in neural networks. Thagard, Paul; Stewart, Terrence C.. Cognitive Science35.1 (Jan-Feb ...


5

Your question was a loooooong time ago, but I just ran across a couple of good references explaining what backward masking does and how to choose one. This(1) is a great paper examining the neural mechanisms and timing of visual backward masking; according to this (2) 2000 review of masking theory, there are four subtypes of backward masking. Backward ...


5

I think this question may be better asked at biology.SE. I have to cite popular science press here, but nevertheless, clearly the answer seems to be: no. Scientific American: Peter Pressman of the Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Beverly Hills, Calif. and Roger Clemens of the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy explain. Food craving, ...


5

There is another common expression: "You never get a second chance to make a first impression." The stability of first impressions is empirically sound: Once formed, first impressions tend to be stable. A review of the literature on the accuracy and impact of first impressions on rater-based assessments found that raters' first impressions are ...


5

If you read between the lines of Evaluation of a Short-Form of the Berg Card Sorting Test, you can find that indeed the only rules tested are the simple colour, number and shape matching. This can be identified by either looking at the source code attached to the paper or looking at the sample result table. Update: See also this paper.


5

You are right to suspect that cognitive control and executive function are essentially interchangeable, at least for most purposes. Among researchers in the area, I would say there is a slight difference, however. Cognitive control refers to the more abstract concept and affords researchers more degrees of freedom in defining what that means operationally ...


5

One of the older theories suggested that a person literally runs out of brain-fuel when they hit the wall (Baumeister et al, 1998). They called this state "ego depletion" and it refers to the kind of mental burnout you are talking about. There is currently a lot of research activity on this topic because we (psychologists) assumed for over a decade that some ...


5

There is no agreed-upon definition of affective cueing because it's not a proper name. If you google for "affective cueing" you only find a handful of hits and in them the term is used differently, mostly to indicate that some cue (a stimulus that carries information) is of positive versus negative valence. In contrast, affective priming refers to a ...


5

Short answer We do think with 'both', and there is evidence to suggest that we need some sort of conscious representation of our thoughts in order to reason about our surroundings. Emotion itself is not enough. Longer answer: We do think with our emotional reactions, and we also think with words. When we think with emotions, these are our 'instincts' ...



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