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17

Yes and No By the standards of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (or DSM-IV in its current form), perhaps the most prominent all-in-one manual to assist physicians in accurately defining a patient's disorder, has specific criteria for a disorder, including: is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability ...


14

You may be thinking of the Backfire Effect. When presented with logical and rational evidence disputing a strongly-held belief, most people's natural tendency is to hold on even tighter to those beliefs rather than to reassess their position. As for why it happens... that's a matter of some debate (surprise, surprise), but the general thinking seems to be ...


8

What you describe is an illusion. (a) The human field of view is almost 180° when staring straight ahead and 270° with eyeball rotation (looking to the side without turning your head). If you look at someone from slightly behind and to the side, they will appear to be gazing forward, and you may feel unnoticed, but in fact you are within their field of ...


7

The actual act of "Trying to see only the sentence which confirms his beliefs" would generally be called confirmation bias.


7

Rather than discuss limits of the human field of view, or extrasensory perception (I don't know anything about the first, and the second is a myth), I think we can look at this as a simple case of illusory correlation (wikipedia), which is both a psychological phenomenon, and something psychologists need to overcome to investigate other phenomena. In a ...


6

Pseudoscience based on false premises and misuse of statistics, I'd say at first glance...but let's take a closer look at this article. First, I'm seeing among the references a lot of articles from journals with "alternative" in their titles, and other sources that strike me as either vaguely fishy or otherwise somewhat tangential. Not what I'd hope to get ...


6

Jens' answer is pretty much spot on, but misses the fact, remembered from my undergraduate lectures, that your ears actually partially 'turn off' when you speak (or chew), in what's called the stapedius reflex (wikipedia). The most common reference I've seen for this is Møller (2000), which unfortunately is a book, but I'm sure more information could be ...


6

Déformation professionnelle is probably the closest match: Déformation professionnelle is a French phrase, meaning a tendency to look at things from the point of view of one's own profession rather than from a broader perspective. It is often translated as "professional deformation" or "job conditioning". The implication is that professional training, ...


6

The first one is a test if a child has understood conservation of matter. It is an example of a conservation task. These belong to the tests used in the framework of Piaget to test what stage of development a child is in. Here is a video demonstration of the cookie task. Here is another question on this site pertaining to a different conservation task. The ...


5

Thoughts on the paper The paper appears to provide a high level overview of the role of mathematics in cognitive science. I'm not a sufficient expert in the overall field of cognitive science where I'd feel comfortable to truly judge the accuracy of the overall synthesis that Andler (2012) provides. That said, much of the paper is about providing examples ...


5

First, biological features do not always arise from some intrinsic benefit. They can also be byproducts of other adaptations, or spandrels. That being said, one example of a possible benefit is specialization. For instance, birds will develop asymmetries in their visual system based on light inputs to their outward-facing eye (one eye faces the eggshell, ...


5

I think this is not a psychological syndrome but just a reflection of the physical procesces. As such it might not be on-topic for this site. Having this said, here is a quick answer. When you hear your own while speaking, the sound source is in a different place than it is, when you hear a recording of your voice through a loudspeaker. In addition, when ...


5

This isn't quite what you are looking for, but it's close enough that it might help you find additional information. Munro (2010) found evidence that people tend to discount the scientific possibility of studying something when presented with scientific evidence that goes against their current beliefs. In other words, if people were shown a result that went ...


5

TL;DR: tons of support (and complications) at each level. One sequence can't fit all (it didn't claim to), but it makes sense in general, and so do the exceptions, and so do other motive models. Check out Kenrick and colleagues' (2010) recent article. Kenrick is a prominent evolutionary psychologist; he and his colleagues have "renovated" Maslow's motive ...


5

First, let me start by saying your topic is extremely broad. There are many reasons why something may be difficult to learn. However, the exact "difficulty associated with learning something" is known by many different terms in the scientific literature, and in particular, I have found cognitive load theory to be a particularly useful description of this. ...


4

Thanks for sharing the article. I read the paper and what I take from it is a rather pessimistic view. He suggests that there is a crucial need for overarching proper mathematical modeling, but he makes it sound this is also a huge obsticle and we must wait (longer than a young persons academic career) to see the fruits of it. I'm coming from a theoretical ...


4

If I understand you correctly, you are trying to learn about good practice in designing studies involving subjective scales? Then getting actual answers to such surveys might not be very helpful. You might rather want to know the impact of your survey design and the answering-environment on the answers of the respondent. These are broad questions. Neither ...


4

An AGI is a man-made machine that can learn, adapt, think, plan, predict, etc. Cognitive science is the study of how our "biological machines" do those same processes.


4

You are describing an observation as old as Freud, where he divided human's experience into three levels, roughly along the same lines as you. The conscious as that clear and ill-defined concept that gives you the feeling of attention, awareness, and self. The preconscious as the level just outside of your current awareness but that could easily spring to ...


4

There are now many full-length books that focus on this deep, complex question about human nature/psychology and note newer/ongoing/active research in the area, some of it cited in them. Why people believe weird things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time Shermer and Gould Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud Park ...


4

I think the field of persuasive communication is relevant for your answer, as well as research into the efficacy of psychotherapy. Customers trust advertising if it is communicated by: attractive persons credible experts Psychotherapy is more effective if: the therapist believes that his methods are effective (!) patient and therapist share the same ...


4

Sure, to some extent mind reading implies brain reading. For instance, if you were reading someone's mind by their behavior or their heart rate, it would be through their brain's effect on those organs. We largely do this through inference. Without a heart monitor or perspiration monitor, we have whole sections of brain dedicated to recognizing human ...


4

In many languages, there is no word similar in meaning to the English word mind. In my opinion that fact illustrates an inherent problem with the scientific use of that word: that mind does not even denote a unified concept at all. The Oxford English Dictionary lists the following current meanings of mind, among others ...


4

A few bits of useful jargon come to mind... Low cognitive complexity may lead to simplistic and absolutist thinking, which one may also refer to as splitting or "black-and-white" thinking (because there's no recognition of "grey areas"). Need for closure and low openness to experience may lead to resistance to change, which is a somewhat less pejorative ...


4

I'm lucky enough to know a counselor-in-training whose preferred modality is CBT; here's what she suggested. Identifying those core beliefs is indeed the important part. Useful tools include the CBT Thought Record worksheet, which pretty well explains itself, and the downward arrow technique illustrated in this figure: (Trader, 2011). One ...


4

I'm not a cognitive science expert, but I happen to have some experience in change management / trying to convince people. There are in fact a lot of logical reasons for refusing logical and rational arguments. Suppose someone tries to share an idea with you. I will pass on the very obvious problems of "not befitting my interest" / "triggering ...


4

If your goal is to find a set of shapes that are unique and easily distinguishable from each other, you might be interested in stimuli that get used in visual statistical learning experiments (e.g. Fiser & Aslin, 2002; Turk-Browne, Junge, & Scholl, 2005). The same set of shapes tends to get used across multiple studies in this literature. Some ...


4

I understand confirmation bias as including this. The Wikipedia page you link has a section on "persistence of discredited beliefs" that corroborates my perspective: Confirmation biases can be used to explain why some beliefs persist when the initial evidence for them is removed.[45] This belief perseverance effect has been shown by a series of ...


4

That moment is often called the "aha moment", the Eureka effect, or more generally, insight. There is literature on it, but as you might expect, it is a pretty difficult thing to produce in a lab. Some references: The AHA! experience: Creativity through emergent binding in neural networks. Thagard, Paul; Stewart, Terrence C.. Cognitive Science35.1 (Jan-Feb ...



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