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17

Yes and No By the standards of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (or DSM-IV in its current form), perhaps the most prominent all-in-one manual to assist physicians in accurately defining a patient's disorder, has specific criteria for a disorder, including: is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability ...


14

You may be thinking of the Backfire Effect. When presented with logical and rational evidence disputing a strongly-held belief, most people's natural tendency is to hold on even tighter to those beliefs rather than to reassess their position. As for why it happens... that's a matter of some debate (surprise, surprise), but the general thinking seems to be ...


8

What you describe is an illusion. (a) The human field of view is almost 180° when staring straight ahead and 270° with eyeball rotation (looking to the side without turning your head). If you look at someone from slightly behind and to the side, they will appear to be gazing forward, and you may feel unnoticed, but in fact you are within their field of ...


7

It's an interesting phenomena. And I think it can be seen in many other domains beyond lifts. At least where I live, pedestrian crossings have buttons, which I've seen people repeatedly press. You can see it often on computers and other digital devices when the system does not immediately respond to user input. Basic Bayesian Rational Actor My starting ...


7

Priming: Stimulus A influences perception/processing of stimulus B. E.g. you walk past an Italian restaurant and smell pizza. When you enter the supermarket and consider what you want to make for dinner, you might be more strongly inclined to bake a pizza, then when you hadn't smelled the delectable pizza from the restaurant. Anchoring: The first ...


7

The actual act of "Trying to see only the sentence which confirms his beliefs" would generally be called confirmation bias.


7

Rather than discuss limits of the human field of view, or extrasensory perception (I don't know anything about the first, and the second is a myth), I think we can look at this as a simple case of illusory correlation (wikipedia), which is both a psychological phenomenon, and something psychologists need to overcome to investigate other phenomena. In a ...


6

The primary difference is two-fold: 1) Methods : Social sciences use mostly qualitative methods and content analysis, psychology and cognitive sciences use quantitative methods and statistical analysis. The one basic standard tool in psychology and cognitive sciences is the laboratory experiment, while social sciences usually collect data in the field. 2) ...


6

Technically it can go either way, and both situations would be conceptually and statistically equivalent. But it is conventional to fix the mean of the noise distribution at 0, so that increased discriminability corresponds graphically with the signal+noise distribution moving rightward along the latent axis.


6

Pseudoscience based on false premises and misuse of statistics, I'd say at first glance...but let's take a closer look at this article. First, I'm seeing among the references a lot of articles from journals with "alternative" in their titles, and other sources that strike me as either vaguely fishy or otherwise somewhat tangential. Not what I'd hope to get ...


6

Déformation professionnelle is probably the closest match: Déformation professionnelle is a French phrase, meaning a tendency to look at things from the point of view of one's own profession rather than from a broader perspective. It is often translated as "professional deformation" or "job conditioning". The implication is that professional training, ...


6

The first one is a test if a child has understood conservation of matter. It is an example of a conservation task. These belong to the tests used in the framework of Piaget to test what stage of development a child is in. Here is a video demonstration of the cookie task. Here is another question on this site pertaining to a different conservation task. The ...


5

Working memory and other aspects of executive function (attention, for instance) are linked. There is evidence that improving self control improves emotional outbursts (see article below). So, improving working memory should improve self control, which should prevent emotional outbursts. See: Denson, T. F., Capper, M. M., Oaten, M., Friese, M., & ...


5

Thoughts on the paper The paper appears to provide a high level overview of the role of mathematics in cognitive science. I'm not a sufficient expert in the overall field of cognitive science where I'd feel comfortable to truly judge the accuracy of the overall synthesis that Andler (2012) provides. That said, much of the paper is about providing examples ...


5

TL;DR: tons of support (and complications) at each level. One sequence can't fit all (it didn't claim to), but it makes sense in general, and so do the exceptions, and so do other motive models. Check out Kenrick and colleagues' (2010) recent article. Kenrick is a prominent evolutionary psychologist; he and his colleagues have "renovated" Maslow's motive ...


5

First, let me start by saying your topic is extremely broad. There are many reasons why something may be difficult to learn. However, the exact "difficulty associated with learning something" is known by many different terms in the scientific literature, and in particular, I have found cognitive load theory to be a particularly useful description of this. ...


5

First, biological features do not always arise from some intrinsic benefit. They can also be byproducts of other adaptations, or spandrels. That being said, one example of a possible benefit is specialization. For instance, birds will develop asymmetries in their visual system based on light inputs to their outward-facing eye (one eye faces the eggshell, ...


4

Presumably, most updates to system interfaces are designed to achieve some goal related to the owner of the system. Often this would be usability, but of course, it could be something else like profitability, security, etc. Interface changes for non-usability related goal: So the first point is that a subset of interface updates are performed with a goal ...


4

People are generally faster to find a dissimilar stimulus when it differs along two dimensions (color+shape) from the rest, but only if they are looking for those dimensions (e.g. find all objects that are red diamonds is faster than find all objects that are red). However, if they are looking for dimensions which are not present, this effect reverses (e.g. ...


4

The phenomenon you describe is called the global precedence effect, and was first studied extensively by David Navon (1977). One way to measure this effect is to create conflict between global and local features. For example, Navon presented observes with letter stimuli that were globally organised into different letters, such as; Observers were ...


4

This is of course a big question and I don't believe that there is a definite answer to it. A very thorough investigation of this matter comes from Rogers and McClelland (2004), who have a developed a parallel distributed theory of acquisition, representation and use of human semantic knowledge. As the name implies, this effort comes from the realm of ...


4

See the relevant psychological disorders that relate to your question: Body Dysmorphic Disorder Body Integrity Identity Disorder Xenomelia Xenomelia would be the most likely disorder in-line with your description. The definition is very similar to your description (Lutz and Brugger, 2012): Xenomelia is the oppressive feeling that one or more limbs of ...


4

The condition is called Somatoparaphrenia, and was first described by Josef Gerstmann, in this paper: Gerstmann, J. (1942). Problem of imperception of disease and of impaired body territories with organic lesions: relation to body scheme and its disorders. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 48(6), 890. For a more recent review of the topic, see: ...


4

The Benjamin Franklin Effect is generally cited as being an example of cognitive dissonance, which is when your brain struggles to reconcile your beliefs with your actions. So let’s say your beliefs about your job are that you deserve to be paid a higher rate, you deserve to be treated more respectfully by your employer and your skills are being wasted in ...


4

Thanks for sharing the article. I read the paper and what I take from it is a rather pessimistic view. He suggests that there is a crucial need for overarching proper mathematical modeling, but he makes it sound this is also a huge obsticle and we must wait (longer than a young persons academic career) to see the fruits of it. I'm coming from a theoretical ...


4

If I understand you correctly, you are trying to learn about good practice in designing studies involving subjective scales? Then getting actual answers to such surveys might not be very helpful. You might rather want to know the impact of your survey design and the answering-environment on the answers of the respondent. These are broad questions. Neither ...


4

An AGI is a man-made machine that can learn, adapt, think, plan, predict, etc. Cognitive science is the study of how our "biological machines" do those same processes.



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