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This article might interest you. It discusses some of the anatomy, functions, and neuropsychological tests related to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a relatively big area and serves many functions, so there's not going to be a single test that evaluates PFC function. Some tests will look at inhibition (the ability to avoid an ...


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I'll tackle the first part of the question as cognitive training is a whole can of worms on its own: The function of the prefrontal cortex should be assessed by a trained neuropsychologist, who can administer the appropriate tests and compare results to reference data from the broader population. One commonly used test associated with prefrontal cortex ...


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I love this kind of research because it shows how there's an affective undercurrent to essentially every part of our lives. This is formalized in microvalence theory (Lebrecht et al., 2012), which posits that all objects, even ordinary ones, are imbued with valence (e.g., explaining why you prefer one chair over another). As far as positive geometric ...


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Actually it's a bit complicated but in simple terms : Neurotransmitters are stored in a synapse in synaptic vesicles, clustered beneath the membrane in the axon terminal located at the presynaptic side of the synapse. Neurotransmitters are released into and diffused across the synaptic cleft, where they bind to specific receptors in the membrane on the ...


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Two ideas on this so far: I think we have neurons representing multiple occurrences of a given feature, for example one neuron for "one face", one for "two faces", etc. At some number it doesn't really make a big difference anymore, so there is just a neuron for "group of faces". This would explain why we can recognize small number of objects in a glimpse ...


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Nearly everything that goes on in our minds happens "for no apparent reason" because we are only conscious of a small part of our mental activity. If it were not so, we would have too much to attend to, and could not think rationally. "Life without filters would be overwhelming." It has been shown in the split brain research that we can have two entire ...


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In addition to the previous answer: A recent meta-analysis of the 59 transcranial direct current simulation (tDCS) studies in healthy volunteers found no evidence for any benefit of stimulation on cognitive performance 1. There is a possibility that tDCS might have some benefit in specific populations, e.g. for training motor tasks in post-stroke ...


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At the moment, there are no TMS/tDCS protocols that were approved for the home use in USA or EU. So, please, don´t. Fortunately, TMS devices are quite expensive and cannot be used by a single man. tDCS is easier, but decent companies on the market like NeuroConn or Neuroelectrics will not sell an equipment to a private person. Foc.us device, by the way, was ...


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Is it known whether the connection strength of synapses is important to the functioning of the brain or does just the binary existence of a synapse matter? I think it's safe to say that neuroscience, as a field, would stand behind this statement from neurobiologist David Sweatt, in his excellent 2003 (1st edition...2nd is probably even more current) ...


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Your guess 1 basically sounds like habituation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habituation Per your clarification in your comment, 2 sounds like you are generally talking about the role of prediction error in learning. There's a lot of work on this. Neural network models generally learn by modifying the connection strengths in response to error. The most ...


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Check it: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long-term_potentiation In other words, yes, the strength of synapses matters. A synapse that has been potentiated means that the postsynaptic neuron will fire more readily as a function of the stimulation from the presynaptic neuron. As for how widely the strengths vary, I have to admit I'm not quite sure how to ...


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see Lisman, J. E. and Otmakhova, N. A. (2001), Storage, recall, and novelty detection of sequences by the hippocampus: Elaborating on the SOCRATIC model to account for normal and aberrant effects of dopamine. Hippocampus, 11: 551–568. doi: 10.1002/hipo.1071: http://wwww.bio.brandeis.edu/lismanlab/pdf/socratic.pdf for one proposed mechanism. in short, local ...



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