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A phenomenon called "memory reconsolidation" has received considerable attention over the last 15 years. This is about activation (retrieval) causing memories to temporarily enter a labile state in which they can be manipulated, even erased. Most of the research has been with animals, especially rodents, but there are a number of studies on humans and there ...


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Optimism bias refers to a general human tendency to underestimate the likelihood of negative events, and conversely, to overestimate the likelihood of positive events, when making predictions about which events will occur to oneself in the future. It is a cognitively interesting and widely studied phenomenon, because the human brain and human behavior are ...


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Rigotti et al. have a model of the wisconsin card sorting task using a neural network and compare it with data from prefrontal cortex http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967380/


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It appears that they tested all of the participants (control & stress) at the same time: Memory was assessed 24 h after learning. According to the model by Joels and colleagues (2006), it can be predicted that learning under stress enhances memory, in particular for stress context-related information Twenty-four hours after learning, ...


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The notion of "selective memory loss" as erasing problematic memories presumes the existence of engrams, which is a theoretical localized, biological basis for memory. Despite exhaustive searching, we have not found any evidence of engrams in any animal with a nervous system, however. To the best of our knowledge, it's therefore impossible to erase memories, ...


4

Your question is about the hard problem of consciousness, which is basically the question of how qualia can be explained in a mechanistic way. As alluded to by the name of the problem, it's hard to give a satisfactory answer. The answer right now is: we don't know. There are some theories about how qualia and consciousness could have a neural basis (see ...


2

Yes, knowing they are under an Iowa (or Wisconsin) test will change their behavior---and most likely create all sorts of biases in the results. And you're probably right; time constraints will most likely place subjects into system1 thinking. Subjects' having knowledge about an experiment may generally ruin it, for it can make testability collapse (how ...


3

It's probably more accurate to say that it's more difficult to fall asleep in the light because the circadian rhythm is directly regulated by ambient light. Our retinas contain a small amount of cells specialized for detecting ambient light levels, and these are directly connected to the brain center which controls the circadian rhythm. As our eyelids don't ...


3

A human brain recognises letters by their constituent features (sub-letter parts). It is modelized by a pandemonium model where printed information is extracted locally then globally. In the letter recognition literature, this type of feature-based hierarchical model competes with template matching theories (with an advantage to the pandemonium-like models ...


2

This is an interesting methodological problem. On the one hand, it seems that any method which would present the halves to the correct eye, and only that eye, would entail a visible boundary, and any method with an invisible boundary would be unable to present the halves as desired. Virtual reality systems present stimuli to each eye separately (e.g., the ...


3

As the Myers Briggs is not particularly valued among personality researchers (see here, for example), it is unlikely that you will find research explicitly focusing on this question. However, the MBTI types Judging (and its counterpart Perceiving) have been shown to overlap with the Big Five personality dimension conscientiousness (Judging = more ...


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The cumulative number of versions of a single character that the human brain can recognize is nearly infinite, whereas computers have to be programmed to recognize every single variation. Humans also recognize 'context' in a word, whereas a computer does not recognize context because it does not have an intuitive understanding of language. From wikipedia: ...


2

Your initial intuition, that eliminating subvocalization makes understanding more difficult, seems to be consistent with empirical evidence. Slowiaczek and Clifton (1980) investigated the effect of eliminating subvocalization on reading comprehension, and concluded the following. In these experiments, reading for meaning was severely impaired when ...


5

One of the older theories suggested that a person literally runs out of brain-fuel when they hit the wall (Baumeister et al, 1998). They called this state "ego depletion" and it refers to the kind of mental burnout you are talking about. There is currently a lot of research activity on this topic because we (psychologists) assumed for over a decade that some ...


3

Yes, they do, but not all of these are different methods for testing memory. Because of the way you've set up the stimulus presentation here, these are effectively all serial verbal working memory tests where the neurocognitive basis may differ or not depending on a number of unstated factors such as stimulus modality or type (e.g., Polyn et al., 2005), ...


3

Cognitive science generally does not try to explain individual behavior, but rather the behavior of all people. We can meaningfully speak about what may cause a deficient ability to feel guilt and remorse, or other features that characterize an individual, but we cannot speak directly about the individual's behavior outside an applied or clinical context. ...


6

While both prism adaptation and negative transfer are pointers to the right direction, I'd see this as a question concerning brain plasticity (you may want to tag the question with that, I don't have the required points to create a new tag). The guy could indeed learn to ride the reverse bike, but he would have to work hard on it, and would have a hard ...


1

Pending Josh's better prism-adaptation-based answer, I believe the general cognitive term for this is negative transfer. Most of the time, when people learn something new or improve their skills in one domain, we observe related improvement in related skills and domains. Sometimes, however, it's the other way around―typically motor activities. A relevant ...


2

There is no known specific process or part of the human brain which, when activated, causes the person to daydream, engage in fantasy or come up with ideas that are far from common reality. Instead, imagination is a broad-based activity which involves and overlaps with many brain regions and cognitive processes. The cognitive neuroscientific basis of ...


3

Overall, while there are developing cognitive neuroscience theories of how hypnotic states are produced, there does not appear to be any known cognitive neuroscience basis for individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility based on a reasonable Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus search on the topic. There is at least some evidence to suggest that ...


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The lateral amygdala appears to be involved in representing fear memories after extinction (Hobin, Goosens and Maren, 2003). The extent of the lateral amygdala's involvement in representing these appears to revolve around the context of the {CS, UCS} pair. The authors state the following in their abstract: Similarly, the majority of LA neurons exhibited ...



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