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9

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...


7

Apologies in advance for the long answer. I tried to narrow down the scope by focusing on only a single construct, and only a single aspect of validity, and it still turned out like an essay... Let's take intelligence research as an example. This work started with an intelligence concept – a fairly vague and ambiguous idea about a personality trait that ...


6

While both prism adaptation and negative transfer are pointers to the right direction, I'd see this as a question concerning brain plasticity (you may want to tag the question with that, I don't have the required points to create a new tag). The guy could indeed learn to ride the reverse bike, but he would have to work hard on it, and would have a hard ...


6

Has dom-ter loops theory been expressed formally in any kind of Jungian function theory study? Based on a reasonably diverse search of Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus, I am concluding that dominant-tertiary loop theory seems to be an original proposal by the author of the forum post cited by the question author. It appears to be a theory which has ...


6

As per the comments to the question, human research observing this distinction does exist. CHCH possibly alludes to an article by Gläscher, Daw, Dayan and O'Doherty (2010) which concisely defines the difference between model-free learning and model-based learning: Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations (“states”) and ...


5

My answer is probably a weird hodgepodge of sometimes poorly explained stuff, but hopefully it's coherent enough :P For many decades in psychology, we've had a mechanistic stimulus-organism-response understanding of the brain. That is, a stimulus triggers an internal psychological process, which produces some behavioral response. One of the major ...


4

This article explains the difference : Declarative memory takes the form of a semantic net linking propositions, images, and sequences by associations. The nodes of long-term memory all have some degree of activation and working memory is that part of long-term memory that is most highly activated. The declarative memory is all knowledge ...


4

I'm a TMS, but not an fMRI, researcher but I have experience using anatomical masks. I can guide you through the steps to make an anatomical mask, but unfortunately I don't have any code to offer you. First of all you need a set of x, y and z co-ordinates that specify where TOFC or LOC are. One way to find these is to find a paper that reports the x,y,z ...


4

Is the theory of Information Metabolism a reasonable scientific theory? Short answer: No. A literature search of Google Scholar and Web of Science for "information metabolism" finds no empirical evidence to support the theory. Furthermore, it appears that the theory of information metabolism is virtually only embraced directly by the author, Kępiński, ...


4

The R package diffIRT (http://www.dylanmolenaar.nl/jss1265.pdf) estimates both the Q and the D diffusion models (see his website for the van der Maas et al. paper discussing the differences between these models). R code for the EZ2 approach, which is much faster if that is important for your applications, is http://raoul.socsci.uva.nl/EZ2/.


4

In general what you're looking for is a biologically plausible model of reinforcement learning and/or conditioning. I know of two publications in particular that address this. The first is A Biologically Plausible Spiking Neuron Model of Fear Conditioning and the second is A Spiking Neural Integrator Model of the Adaptive Control of Action by the Medial ...


3

I agree with the previous answer/comments that seeking a simplified abstract model of the brain when it is so complex is probably asking too much. We would need to know a lot more about the "states" you are talking about in order to model them, and in reality the set of "triggers" etc is going to be far too long. However, given your interest and analogy ...


3

Interesting question. "Ontology" is often used in confusing and polyvalent ways, so let's start by clearing up the terminology very quickly for those who aren't intimate with the various different meanings. What does "ontology" mean? Broadly, ontology the field is the philosophical study of being. An ontology is a method for establishing what beings or ...


3

Mirror neurons are actually quite a contentious area in cogsci. The debate is most certainly not settled as to what role they play, and whether they even exist, in humans. In short though, my argument would be that there are no specific awareness related mirror neurons in the brain because mirror neurons themselves are awareness. Again, this is an extremely ...


3

Rigotti et al. have a model of the wisconsin card sorting task using a neural network and compare it with data from prefrontal cortex http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967380/


2

I do not know for sure, but I believe that the vectors would be created in a domain-specific manner. Vectors in the visual system would be created in a way that is particular to the needs of visual processing, etc. The reason why the vectors are represented as random in the semantic pointer architecture, is because from the point of view of the ...


2

I have found the human information processing model (Wickens) to be a good starting point at understanding the high-level processing functions that take place.


2

My understanding of the difference between the two is that you cannot declare what is procedural. For example, you can't tell a person how to balance on a bicycle or how to ice skate backward. You can show them different movements, and that is declarative in nature, but ultimately is not the same thing. Whether or not declarative memory is "faster" has ...


2

I found two papers in the same vein with considerably more empirical evidence. The first paper is Modeling the Size of Wars. In the paper, provinces and conflicts are modeled to justify the Richardson's observation that the proportion of the severity of conflicts in relation to their frequency is described by a power law. In other words, the more space ...


2

Short answer: Altmann's model is hierarchical and allows for "higher-level" goals and "lower-level" goals, but a goal is ultimately a goal―higher level goals are just sets of lower level goals, at least as far as I understand it. Given its ability to predict performance on solid laboratory tasks like the Tower of Hanoi, there is no reason to think that ...


2

With regard to emotions, it may be more useful to think about things in terms of interoception and attention. Interoception involves awareness of one's inner bodily sensations (e.g., pleasantness/unpleasantness, high/low arousal; Craig, 2002), and we can (rapidly) direct our attention to shifts in these sensations. Changes in our inner physiological ...


2

Currently, the most comprehensive cognitive model of executive functions would have to be the model proposed by Miyake et al. (2000). (It is probably best not to confuse being the most comprehensive cognitive model with being a strong explanation, because the executive functions remain one of the most poorly understood areas of cognition, but it's a very ...


2

Most flow diagrams with the detail your require are for rudimentary sensory functions (such as seeing, eye tracking and other simple functions) can be found in any neuroanatomy textbook. The one I have experience with is "Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas" by John H. Martin. Alternatively, if you're looking for a more functional interpretation of how information ...


2

It appears that there is little scientific backing for Jung's theories. As these theories were first suggested at the start of the 20th century they have had a considerable amount of time to receive scientific support. If they were accepted by scientists it therefore seems like they would have been widely used and cited by scholars in the interim period. ...


2

Your guess 1 basically sounds like habituation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habituation Per your clarification in your comment, 2 sounds like you are generally talking about the role of prediction error in learning. There's a lot of work on this. Neural network models generally learn by modifying the connection strengths in response to error. The most ...


1

This sounds a little bit like a mild form of Depersonalization. From Wikipedia: The core symptom of depersonalization disorder is the subjective experience of "unreality in one's sense of self", and as such there are no clinical signs. People who are diagnosed with depersonalization also experience an almost uncontrollable urge to question and think ...


1

Pending Josh's better prism-adaptation-based answer, I believe the general cognitive term for this is negative transfer. Most of the time, when people learn something new or improve their skills in one domain, we observe related improvement in related skills and domains. Sometimes, however, it's the other way around―typically motor activities. A relevant ...


1

It is generally thought that thalamic input comes in layer 4, feed back from higher areas come through layer 1 to layer 2/3 and feed forward is sent from the deeper layers. see Canonical Microcircuits for Predictive Coding Andre Bastos, W. Martin Usrey, Rick Adams, George Mangun, Pascal Fries, and Karl Friston ...



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