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9

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...


9

The Computational Theory of Mind is not that the mind does some form of computation in the wide sense of computation. Rather, look at the examples for the CToM given in the Wikipedia article; people like Fodor, Pinker, Marr. Their view is very much the opposite to the Connectionist position of West Coast scientists like Rumelhart, Elman and McClelland. Both ...


7

Apologies in advance for the long answer. I tried to narrow down the scope by focusing on only a single construct, and only a single aspect of validity, and it still turned out like an essay... Let's take intelligence research as an example. This work started with an intelligence concept – a fairly vague and ambiguous idea about a personality trait that ...


7

I don't think there's any evidence suggesting that mindfulness or meditation are the opposite of self-regulation. In arguing why, it'll be useful to define terms. Meditation and mindfulness First off, meditation and mindfulness are not the same thing. Meditation generally refers to a family of practices for investigating or inducing different states of ...


6

While both prism adaptation and negative transfer are pointers to the right direction, I'd see this as a question concerning brain plasticity (you may want to tag the question with that, I don't have the required points to create a new tag). The guy could indeed learn to ride the reverse bike, but he would have to work hard on it, and would have a hard ...


6

Has dom-ter loops theory been expressed formally in any kind of Jungian function theory study? Based on a reasonably diverse search of Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus, I am concluding that dominant-tertiary loop theory seems to be an original proposal by the author of the forum post cited by the question author. It appears to be a theory which has ...


6

As per the comments to the question, human research observing this distinction does exist. CHCH possibly alludes to an article by Gläscher, Daw, Dayan and O'Doherty (2010) which concisely defines the difference between model-free learning and model-based learning: Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations (“states”) and ...


5

There is data on this question generated by research on the embodiment of spatial cognition. The idea here is that we mentally represent and construct space in relation to our bodies. From this perspective, the differences that you describe (left vs. right more complicated than up vs down) stem from the properties of how we perceive the world in our bodies: ...


4

Amos (2000) and Monchi et al. (2000) use the similar approach of assigning each card attribute to a node and using mutual inhibition to choose the right one. Although their models are biologically plausible and make many neuroanatomical predictions, they are functionally implausible. Their networks are created for the unique purpose of of completing the ...


4

SPA is used (among other things) for combining (binding) and extracting (unbinding) knowledge representations for processing. This is a (purposely) lossy compression. In the "Learning Rule Generation for Induction" case, the clean-up memory is used to convert a general transformation that is being learned (lots of different transformations convolved ...


4

The R package diffIRT (http://www.dylanmolenaar.nl/jss1265.pdf) estimates both the Q and the D diffusion models (see his website for the van der Maas et al. paper discussing the differences between these models). R code for the EZ2 approach, which is much faster if that is important for your applications, is http://raoul.socsci.uva.nl/EZ2/.


3

Mirror neurons are actually quite a contentious area in cogsci. The debate is most certainly not settled as to what role they play, and whether they even exist, in humans. In short though, my argument would be that there are no specific awareness related mirror neurons in the brain because mirror neurons themselves are awareness. Again, this is an extremely ...


3

Is the theory of Information Metabolism a reasonable scientific theory? Short answer: No. A literature search of Google Scholar and Web of Science for "information metabolism" finds no empirical evidence to support the theory. Furthermore, it appears that the theory of information metabolism is virtually only embraced directly by the author, Kępiński, ...


3

Interesting question! A related phenomenon called the illusion of explanatory depth (IOED) suggests that the human cognitive system has a systematic weakness in this kind of evaluation--I believe the classic example is asking people if they know how a helicopter works (most people say yes), and then asking them to explain how a helicopter works (very few ...


3

Rigotti et al. have a model of the wisconsin card sorting task using a neural network and compare it with data from prefrontal cortex http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967380/


2

I would disagree with @Krysta: the distinction between system 1 and system 2 processes goes far beyond that of cognition with/without emotion: it's a complex debates that's been going on since the 70s (in it's current form, it's echoed in a wider debate going back centuries). For the sake of brevity, let me resort to bullet points. For psychologists, Evans ...


2

The term I was looking for is "concurrent activities". Some research in the domain of hierarchical learning has been done in this domain by Rohanimanesh and Mahadevan. According to this literature review on hierarchical learning, basically what they did was determine how multiple tasks can be managed without interfering with one another and how they should ...


2

I do not know for sure, but I believe that the vectors would be created in a domain-specific manner. Vectors in the visual system would be created in a way that is particular to the needs of visual processing, etc. The reason why the vectors are represented as random in the semantic pointer architecture, is because from the point of view of the ...


2

Your question is a bit vague, but it sounds like you might be looking for Hick's Law. Hick's law states the relationship between the number of possible responses that an organism can provide for a given task and the minimum time necessary to engage a response. You may have also been thinking of one of the computational models for two-alternative ...


2

With regard to emotions, it may be more useful to think about things in terms of interoception and attention. Interoception involves awareness of one's inner bodily sensations (e.g., pleasantness/unpleasantness, high/low arousal; Craig, 2002), and we can (rapidly) direct our attention to shifts in these sensations. Changes in our inner physiological ...


2

Interesting question. "Ontology" is often used in confusing and polyvalent ways, so let's start by clearing up the terminology very quickly for those who aren't intimate with the various different meanings. What does "ontology" mean? Broadly, ontology the field is the philosophical study of being. An ontology is a method for establishing what beings or ...


2

Currently, the most comprehensive cognitive model of executive functions would have to be the model proposed by Miyake et al. (2000). (It is probably best not to confuse being the most comprehensive cognitive model with being a strong explanation, because the executive functions remain one of the most poorly understood areas of cognition, but it's a very ...


1

Pending Josh's better prism-adaptation-based answer, I believe the general cognitive term for this is negative transfer. Most of the time, when people learn something new or improve their skills in one domain, we observe related improvement in related skills and domains. Sometimes, however, it's the other way around―typically motor activities. A relevant ...


1

Here is the illustrate of both equation To make them visible at same time, I changed 100 to 1 and set memory strength as 1. They look alike.


1

Here's a link to a socionics wiki page on a study of reinin types in Russia. http://www.wikisocion.org/en/index.php?title=Reinin_Dichotomies:_Study_Results They did a lot of research on experimental data to prove that reinin traits exist in different types of people. If you don't know the reinin dichotomies, they are traits that were mathematically ...


1

Short answer: Altmann's model is hierarchical and allows for "higher-level" goals and "lower-level" goals, but a goal is ultimately a goal―higher level goals are just sets of lower level goals, at least as far as I understand it. Given its ability to predict performance on solid laboratory tasks like the Tower of Hanoi, there is no reason to think that ...


1

The only modelling method that I know of for creating large-scale biologically based models is the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF). The NEF is basically a framework for associating functional computations and dynamic systems to biologically plausible populations of neurons. Given this foundation, advanced applications linking behaviour to neural function ...


1

The previous answers have elaborated quite well in terms of whether an actual physiological division of the two types/speeds of processing actually exist. In regards to the "model" aspect of my question, the only model that I know intimately, Spaun. Spaun does have these two types/speeds of processing mapped to two different circuits, if we are focusing on ...


1

It's unclear if the idea of 'translation' from one personality framework to another is a meaningful concept. A score on any given personality factor represents some weighted combination of measures - usually endorsement of questionnaire items like "I am the life of the party", etc. As such, every factor score is a unique variable that probably doesn't ...



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