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9

In speaking to constructs vs. measures, I believe that the difference is clear and implied in your background: constructs are that which cannot be directly measured (but we assume exists), where measures are directly measurable attributes that we assume relate to the construct. The process you seem to be questioning is that of the operational definition, or ...


7

Apologies in advance for the long answer. I tried to narrow down the scope by focusing on only a single construct, and only a single aspect of validity, and it still turned out like an essay... Let's take intelligence research as an example. This work started with an intelligence concept – a fairly vague and ambiguous idea about a personality trait that ...


7

I don't think there's any evidence suggesting that mindfulness or meditation are the opposite of self-regulation. In arguing why, it'll be useful to define terms. Meditation and mindfulness First off, meditation and mindfulness are not the same thing. Meditation generally refers to a family of practices for investigating or inducing different states of ...


6

Has dom-ter loops theory been expressed formally in any kind of Jungian function theory study? Based on a reasonably diverse search of Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus, I am concluding that dominant-tertiary loop theory seems to be an original proposal by the author of the forum post cited by the question author. It appears to be a theory which has ...


6

As per the comments to the question, human research observing this distinction does exist. CHCH possibly alludes to an article by Gläscher, Daw, Dayan and O'Doherty (2010) which concisely defines the difference between model-free learning and model-based learning: Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations (“states”) and ...


6

While both prism adaptation and negative transfer are pointers to the right direction, I'd see this as a question concerning brain plasticity (you may want to tag the question with that, I don't have the required points to create a new tag). The guy could indeed learn to ride the reverse bike, but he would have to work hard on it, and would have a hard ...


5

There is data on this question generated by research on the embodiment of spatial cognition. The idea here is that we mentally represent and construct space in relation to our bodies. From this perspective, the differences that you describe (left vs. right more complicated than up vs down) stem from the properties of how we perceive the world in our bodies: ...


4

Amos (2000) and Monchi et al. (2000) use the similar approach of assigning each card attribute to a node and using mutual inhibition to choose the right one. Although their models are biologically plausible and make many neuroanatomical predictions, they are functionally implausible. Their networks are created for the unique purpose of of completing the ...


4

SPA is used (among other things) for combining (binding) and extracting (unbinding) knowledge representations for processing. This is a (purposely) lossy compression. In the "Learning Rule Generation for Induction" case, the clean-up memory is used to convert a general transformation that is being learned (lots of different transformations convolved ...


4

The R package diffIRT (http://www.dylanmolenaar.nl/jss1265.pdf) estimates both the Q and the D diffusion models (see his website for the van der Maas et al. paper discussing the differences between these models). R code for the EZ2 approach, which is much faster if that is important for your applications, is http://raoul.socsci.uva.nl/EZ2/.


3

Mirror neurons are actually quite a contentious area in cogsci. The debate is most certainly not settled as to what role they play, and whether they even exist, in humans. In short though, my argument would be that there are no specific awareness related mirror neurons in the brain because mirror neurons themselves are awareness. Again, this is an extremely ...


3

Is the theory of Information Metabolism a reasonable scientific theory? Short answer: No. A literature search of Google Scholar and Web of Science for "information metabolism" finds no empirical evidence to support the theory. Furthermore, it appears that the theory of information metabolism is virtually only embraced directly by the author, Kępiński, ...


3

Interesting question! A related phenomenon called the illusion of explanatory depth (IOED) suggests that the human cognitive system has a systematic weakness in this kind of evaluation--I believe the classic example is asking people if they know how a helicopter works (most people say yes), and then asking them to explain how a helicopter works (very few ...


3

Rigotti et al. have a model of the wisconsin card sorting task using a neural network and compare it with data from prefrontal cortex http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967380/


3

Interesting question. "Ontology" is often used in confusing and polyvalent ways, so let's start by clearing up the terminology very quickly for those who aren't intimate with the various different meanings. What does "ontology" mean? Broadly, ontology the field is the philosophical study of being. An ontology is a method for establishing what beings or ...


2

I would disagree with @Krysta: the distinction between system 1 and system 2 processes goes far beyond that of cognition with/without emotion: it's a complex debates that's been going on since the 70s (in it's current form, it's echoed in a wider debate going back centuries). For the sake of brevity, let me resort to bullet points. For psychologists, Evans ...


2

I do not know for sure, but I believe that the vectors would be created in a domain-specific manner. Vectors in the visual system would be created in a way that is particular to the needs of visual processing, etc. The reason why the vectors are represented as random in the semantic pointer architecture, is because from the point of view of the ...


2

I have found the human information processing model (Wickens) to be a good starting point at understanding the high-level processing functions that take place.


2

My understanding of the difference between the two is that you cannot declare what is procedural. For example, you can't tell a person how to balance on a bicycle or how to ice skate backward. You can show them different movements, and that is declarative in nature, but ultimately is not the same thing. Whether or not declarative memory is "faster" has ...


2

With regard to emotions, it may be more useful to think about things in terms of interoception and attention. Interoception involves awareness of one's inner bodily sensations (e.g., pleasantness/unpleasantness, high/low arousal; Craig, 2002), and we can (rapidly) direct our attention to shifts in these sensations. Changes in our inner physiological ...


2

Currently, the most comprehensive cognitive model of executive functions would have to be the model proposed by Miyake et al. (2000). (It is probably best not to confuse being the most comprehensive cognitive model with being a strong explanation, because the executive functions remain one of the most poorly understood areas of cognition, but it's a very ...


2

Most flow diagrams with the detail your require are for rudimentary sensory functions (such as seeing, eye tracking and other simple functions) can be found in any neuroanatomy textbook. The one I have experience with is "Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas" by John H. Martin. Alternatively, if you're looking for a more functional interpretation of how information ...


1

Here is the illustrate of both equation To make them visible at same time, I changed 100 to 1 and set memory strength as 1. They look alike.


1

Here is an excellent article on self awareness and associated phenomena. The author (his quote is linked in the original question) describes various forms of brain damage and psychiatric conditions and their impact on (self)awareness and perception of the world. He mentions mirror neurons on multiple occasions.


1

Disclaimer: This answer is a bit self-serving because it only describes research work from the lab where I am a student. However, I think it's relevant for the question! Coordination of eye, head, and hand http://www.cis.rit.edu/research/vpl/publications/ExpBrainRes2001.pdf Pelz, J., Hayhoe, M., & Loeber, R. (2001). The coordination of eye, head, and ...


1

PRIMs doesn't claim to solve to binding problem. It just passes on the responsibility of representing the symbols and combining them accordingly. In this way the binding problem "is no longer an issue" of PRIMs, however it is a problem of whatever representational system it's working on top of. Whether it be symbolic like ACT-R or more neural, such as the ...


1

Paul Thagard has been working with the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) and the Semantic Pointer Architecture (SPA) to create a biologically unified theory of consciousness. This is presented in the paper "Two theories of consciousness: Semantic pointer competition vs. information integration" where Thagard's theory is contrasted directly with Tonini's ...


1

Short answer: Altmann's model is hierarchical and allows for "higher-level" goals and "lower-level" goals, but a goal is ultimately a goal―higher level goals are just sets of lower level goals, at least as far as I understand it. Given its ability to predict performance on solid laboratory tasks like the Tower of Hanoi, there is no reason to think that ...


1

The only modelling method that I know of for creating large-scale biologically based models is the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF). The NEF is basically a framework for associating functional computations and dynamic systems to biologically plausible populations of neurons. Given this foundation, advanced applications linking behaviour to neural function ...



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