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13

Scientists studying the matter generally believe multitasking, and women's superiority at it, to be a myth. Men come out slightly better multitaskers than women but there's not really any meaningful difference. The way it's defined is critical though; it's being able to do two things that typically require focal attention at the exact same time. For ...


7

In general, there are two types of 'complexity' that are studied. Usually, when people talk about 'complexity', especially on the internet, they mean Santa Fe Institute style complexity. This is a vague and poorly defined concept that has struggled for a number of years without making significant progress. It uses pretty words, but has yet to deliver on any ...


6

Humans actually exhibit both slow and fast learning and they have somewhat different properties. One distinction is between "declarative" memory (for example, facts like "tigers have stripes" or "Paris is the capital of France") and "procedural" learning (such as perceptuo-motor skills like riding a bike or playing a musical instrument). Declarative memory ...


6

the question which of these two descriptions is correct? is perhaps natural in the context of, say, someone studying for an examination. epistemologists might suggest that a better formulation would be is either of these correct? however, as stated here there are clear reasons for preferring the first formulation to the second. I shall first explain why, ...


5

Thoughts on the paper The paper appears to provide a high level overview of the role of mathematics in cognitive science. I'm not a sufficient expert in the overall field of cognitive science where I'd feel comfortable to truly judge the accuracy of the overall synthesis that Andler (2012) provides. That said, much of the paper is about providing examples ...


5

If you had asked about cognitive distortions, I probably could've answered straight away about one of those! I think it might be an illusion of transparency. Your example somewhat aligns to the definition provided by Gilovich, Medvec & Savitsky (1998): "... we refer to this tendency to overestimate the extent to which others can read one's internal ...


5

I like to think of multitasking as rapid task switching. See Pashler's (2000) article for the implications of "multitasking." References Pashler, H. (2000). Task switching and multitask performance. To appear in Monsell, S., and Driver, J. (editors). Attention and Performance XVIII: Control of mental processes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press


4

I think this recent paper fits your requirements. It considers biological plausibility by showing that the number of neurons required in the proposed method is within a reasonable size for the human brain, and dismisses a series of unreasonable models. Specifically, they create a neural network that contains 2.5 million neurons to contain a network of ...


4

It's actually much simpler - on the surface - than what that quoted item implies! Probability learning is literally "learning" what the "probability" is of certain things, the study of how people and other animals learn about real world probabilities outside a statistics classroom, and in cognitive science (like in the PDF you linked) the concern is about ...


4

The Benjamin Franklin Effect is generally cited as being an example of cognitive dissonance, which is when your brain struggles to reconcile your beliefs with your actions. So let’s say your beliefs about your job are that you deserve to be paid a higher rate, you deserve to be treated more respectfully by your employer and your skills are being wasted in ...


4

Thanks for sharing the article. I read the paper and what I take from it is a rather pessimistic view. He suggests that there is a crucial need for overarching proper mathematical modeling, but he makes it sound this is also a huge obsticle and we must wait (longer than a young persons academic career) to see the fruits of it. I'm coming from a theoretical ...


4

This is Freud's own original diagram: Please note that only the uppermost part of the self, the part labelled "pcpt-cs" (i.e. perception-consciousness, German Wachbewusstsein) constitutes our conscious thought. All three parts of the psychic apparatus are not conscious. Some parts of the Ego and Super-Ego are preconscious and can potentially become ...


4

Partial answer: Douglas Hofstadter has written quite a lot about this from a more philosophical approach. His style isn't for everyone, I think it's introduced well in this chapter ('Ant Fugue'). For more applied work from the same, you might look at Mitchell and Hofstadter's CopyCat model of analogies (described briefly here, as well as on wikipedia). ...


3

A heuristic consists of preferences that help you decide in a situation where you do not have enough information or do not care enough to make an informed decision. For example, when you want to buy yoghurt, but are no nutritionist, you might decide on which yoghurt you buy by the familiarity of the brand name (you prefer the familiar, this is called the ...


3

Egocentrism? I can't even find the Family Circus comic where the boy is talking on the phone, playing with a yo-yo, and says, "Look what I can do, grandma!" Update: Huh, I didn't find that comic, but it's still a Family Circus comic that accompanies the topic. Grandma: "Tell me, Jeffy, what was this fun dream about last night?" Jeffy: "Don't you remember, ...


3

It's a little unclear what you're asking. In general, psychologists try to build models that are parsimonious; this often means only introducing new parameters (particularly free parameters) into a model when they are absolutely necessary. You are right that with a sufficient number of free parameters, one can build a model that fits the data perfectly. But ...


3

This is of course a big question and I don't believe that there is a definite answer to it. A very thorough investigation of this matter comes from Rogers and McClelland (2004), who have a developed a parallel distributed theory of acquisition, representation and use of human semantic knowledge. As the name implies, this effort comes from the realm of ...


3

Mario Liotti and Don M. Tucker (Brain Asymmetry, MIT, 1996) attempt to explain that the 'corticolimbic architecture is not left/right, but dorsal/ventral". In their opinion, the reason for hemispheric asymmetries can be found in the asymmetries of the dorsal and ventral systems. They proposed that emotional behavior could be interpreted by analyzing the ...


3

To extend on @BenCole comment, an interesting summary of different models of time perceptions can be found in this paper. Now these models are in a sense more descriptive than the fundamental biological hypothesis mentioned by caseyr547, so might not be ready to call these "explanations", depending on what you mean by the term. The models meant to give a ...


3

A 2013 book tackles this subject : Surfaces and Essences, written by Douglas Hofstadter and Emmanuel Sander. They mostly cite anecdotal evidence (not only, Emmanuel Sander worked on this subject for years), but the theory is very convincing, and quite beautiful. The book received praise from some big names (including Steven Pinker and Elizabeth Loftus). So, ...


3

The question of how "rapid" learning could be possible relates to Hume's problem of induction -- how can we learn so much from so little. Historically, in both philosophy and psychology, the solution has fallen into one of two camps: either some form of the knowledge was already there to begin with (a 'nativist' view), or we use statistical inference to ...


3

There are several approaches to theoretical neuroscience. I am currently taking the physics/mathematics approach: modelling the currents in neurons and coupling several neurons together through differential equations. In Computer Science, the tendency is more towards machine learning: Bayesian statistics, artificial neural networks, signal processing, ...


3

There's a huge amount of perspectives you could take in answering a question like this, but I would like to approach it from the perspective of dual process theories (see the Evans, 2008 Annual Review paper for an outline). I'm not going to reference this answer much beyond that, because almost all the information is adapted from this review, with some ...


2

I think I read in some book or other, maybe called Mindfulness, by E.J.Langer (ISBN 0201523418), that William James (?) taught himself to write about one topic while discussing another topic. However, he could not remember what he wrote about afterward, and the writing was not very compelling in any case. I think it may be possible to do more than one ...


2

You may be interested in the FARS model from Fagg and Arbib (1999) that describes the interaction of the two visual streams in the primate brain during object grasping. The article What Puts the How in Where? Tool Use and the Divided Visual Streams Hypothesis (2007) makes use of the dorsal/ventral streams to explain our ability to use complex tool. As Frey ...


2

Henderson summarizes very well a number of approaches on human gaze control during real-world scenes and tasks. http://cvcl.mit.edu/iap05/henderson_03.pdf In a nutshell, our visual system combines knowledge about the task (e.g. color of the search target) and external audio/visual stimuli (saliency) to control our gaze inside a scene. Quite insightful about ...


2

Personality disorders are diagnosed with the DSM manual save for a few which have targeted assessment tools (like the PCL-R). TA is not considered a well supported technique research wise and lots of schools don't teach it except by way of a history lesson. I'm quite certain that both Berne and the authors of the DSM would agree that it doesn't actually ...



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