# Tag Info

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Scientists studying the matter generally believe multitasking, and women's superiority at it, to be a myth. Men come out slightly better multitaskers than women but there's not really any meaningful difference. The way it's defined is critical though; it's being able to do two things that typically require focal attention at the exact same time. For ...

7

One common way of framing numerical cognition is in terms of a "mental number line". This mental number line is thought to have a logarithmic scale, so perceived differences are inversely proportional to their magnitude. For example, the difference between 6 and 7 is perceived as bigger than the difference between 76 and 77. This is just a variant of the ...

7

In general, there are two types of 'complexity' that are studied. Usually, when people talk about 'complexity', especially on the internet, they mean Santa Fe Institute style complexity. This is a vague and poorly defined concept that has struggled for a number of years without making significant progress. It uses pretty words, but has yet to deliver on any ...

6

Humans actually exhibit both slow and fast learning and they have somewhat different properties. One distinction is between "declarative" memory (for example, facts like "tigers have stripes" or "Paris is the capital of France") and "procedural" learning (such as perceptuo-motor skills like riding a bike or playing a musical instrument). Declarative memory ...

6

From personal observation, the consensus seems to be that the two streams hypothesis is an oversimplification of the truth, albeit a useful one. The primary reason that this hypothesis is seen as an oversimplification is because there is a lot of cross-talk between the two streams. For example, Zanon et al. (2010) provides evidence for functional ...

5

To my knowledge, there is no adjusted RMSD. RMSD, unlike $R^2$, isn't typically used to compare models across the literature. $R^2$ represents the proportion of variance explained by the model, a construct which translates well across different experimental designs. Adjusted $R^2$ distorts this by accounting for the number of parameters in your model, but ...

5

The ability to discretize numbers seems to depend on having words for discrete numbers. But humans seem to be able to estimate, regardless of linguistic constraints. As a cool counterexample to "typical educated adults" as evidence for exact, symbolic representation of number, the Pirahã people of Brazil do not have words for numbers and do not seem to ...

5

Reward systems are one of the most actively studied topics in (cognitive) neuroscience and prediction error - that is, deviations from expected "future" reward - play a big role in that. Since you're particularly interested in models, I recommend checking out the work of Matt Botvinick and Nathaniel Daw. Here are a few papers that might be good starting ...

5

If you had asked about cognitive distortions, I probably could've answered straight away about one of those! I think it might be an illusion of transparency. Your example somewhat aligns to the definition provided by Gilovich, Medvec & Savitsky (1998): "... we refer to this tendency to overestimate the extent to which others can read one's internal ...

4

It's actually much simpler - on the surface - than what that quoted item implies! Probability learning is literally "learning" what the "probability" is of certain things, the study of how people and other animals learn about real world probabilities outside a statistics classroom, and in cognitive science (like in the PDF you linked) the concern is about ...

4

This is Freud's own original diagram: Please note that only the uppermost part of the self, the part labelled "pcpt-cs" (i.e. perception-consciousness, German Wachbewusstsein) constitutes our conscious thought. All three parts of the psychic apparatus are not conscious. Some parts of the Ego and Super-Ego are preconscious and can potentially become ...

4

I like to think of multitasking as rapid task switching. See Pashler's (2000) article for the implications of "multitasking." References Pashler, H. (2000). Task switching and multitask performance. To appear in Monsell, S., and Driver, J. (editors). Attention and Performance XVIII: Control of mental processes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

3

There are at least 3 ways to discount SSE (or RMSE) by the number of free params: $$\text{adjusted RMSE} = \sqrt{\frac{SSE}{n - k}}$$ $$AIC = n \times ln\left(\frac{SSE}{n}\right) - k \times ln(n)$$ $$BIC = n \times ln\left(\frac{SSE}{n}\right) - 2 \times k$$ or in computer code style: k = number of free params n = number of DV's SSE = sum of ...

3

A 2013 book tackles this subject : Surfaces and Essences, written by Douglas Hofstadter and Emmanuel Sander. They mostly cite anecdotal evidence (not only, Emmanuel Sander worked on this subject for years), but the theory is very convincing, and quite beautiful. The book received praise from some big names (including Steven Pinker and Elizabeth Loftus). So, ...

3

The question of how "rapid" learning could be possible relates to Hume's problem of induction -- how can we learn so much from so little. Historically, in both philosophy and psychology, the solution has fallen into one of two camps: either some form of the knowledge was already there to begin with (a 'nativist' view), or we use statistical inference to ...

3

Have you read this: Fishbein, M., Middlestadt, S. (1995) Noncognitive Effects on Attitude Formation and Change: Fact or Artifact? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 4(2),181-202. [DOI] Direct quote from page 187: Note that the psychology of the double negative is an essential part of an expectancy-value formulation (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein, ...

3

Mario Liotti and Don M. Tucker (Brain Asymmetry, MIT, 1996) attempt to explain that the 'corticolimbic architecture is not left/right, but dorsal/ventral". In their opinion, the reason for hemispheric asymmetries can be found in the asymmetries of the dorsal and ventral systems. They proposed that emotional behavior could be interpreted by analyzing the ...

3

Egocentrism? I can't even find the Family Circus comic where the boy is talking on the phone, playing with a yo-yo, and says, "Look what I can do, grandma!" Update: Huh, I didn't find that comic, but it's still a Family Circus comic that accompanies the topic. Grandma: "Tell me, Jeffy, what was this fun dream about last night?" Jeffy: "Don't you remember, ...

3

This is of course a big question and I don't believe that there is a definite answer to it. A very thorough investigation of this matter comes from Rogers and McClelland (2004), who have a developed a parallel distributed theory of acquisition, representation and use of human semantic knowledge. As the name implies, this effort comes from the realm of ...

3

The Benjamin Franklin Effect is generally cited as being an example of cognitive dissonance, which is when your brain struggles to reconcile your beliefs with your actions. So let’s say your beliefs about your job are that you deserve to be paid a higher rate, you deserve to be treated more respectfully by your employer and your skills are being wasted in ...

3

Iguanas are not carnivores. Look at it historically: we have had useful animals around us for thousands of years: dogs to help hunting, cats to keep vermin away. Other non-carnivorous pets was at some point - and still are - domesticated for food (rabbits, guinea pigs). Pigs are a gray area: they will pretty much eat anything, meat included. Then you ...

3

Thoughts on the paper The paper appears to provide a high level overview of the role of mathematics in cognitive science. I'm not a sufficient expert in the overall field of cognitive science where I'd feel comfortable to truly judge the accuracy of the overall synthesis that Andler (2012) provides. That said, much of the paper is about providing examples ...

2

Personality disorders are diagnosed with the DSM manual save for a few which have targeted assessment tools (like the PCL-R). TA is not considered a well supported technique research wise and lots of schools don't teach it except by way of a history lesson. I'm quite certain that both Berne and the authors of the DSM would agree that it doesn't actually ...

2

You may be interested in the FARS model from Fagg and Arbib (1999) that describes the interaction of the two visual streams in the primate brain during object grasping. The article What Puts the How in Where? Tool Use and the Divided Visual Streams Hypothesis (2007) makes use of the dorsal/ventral streams to explain our ability to use complex tool. As Frey ...

2

I think I read in some book or other, maybe called Mindfulness, by E.J.Langer (ISBN 0201523418), that William James (?) taught himself to write about one topic while discussing another topic. However, he could not remember what he wrote about afterward, and the writing was not very compelling in any case. I think it may be possible to do more than one ...

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