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22

Scientists studying the matter generally believe multitasking, and women's superiority at it, to be a myth. Men come out slightly better multitaskers than women but there's not really any meaningful difference. The way it's defined is critical though; it's being able to do two things that typically require focal attention at the exact same time. For ...


20

Probabilistic approaches of this sort are usually referred to more specifically as the bayesian approach and Chater and Tanenbaum are definitely bayesians (I have not read much by Yuille and can't comment). Bayesianism is more than just increasing in popularity and being encouraged; it is considered one of the big-4 approaches to cognitive-modeling, with the ...


16

The major neural models of consciousness at the moment roughly fall into two camps: cognitive and phenomenological. They are defined by controversy surrounding what types of experience qualify as concious. Cognitive models On the one hand there are strong cognitive models of consciousness, such as the one proposed by Stanislas Dehaene, where consciousness ...


14

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Video Games (C. S. Green, D. Bavelier, 2004) is a good if somewhat dated overview of cognitive research on video game players. They note that ordinary video game users show a number of differentiated and improved mental skills: Video game play has been shown to dramatically enhance visuo-motor skills. In particular, video ...


13

Artem gave a very good answer, but I want to add one more weaknesses of probabilistic/Bayesian models: they are not mechanistic. This is related to Artem's point about neural grounding, but is a little different. The issue is that probabilistic models don't really provide insight into the underlying mechanism that produces the observed behavior -- if you ask ...


13

In my experience, the term "semantic knowledge" (or semantic memory or conceptual knowledge) is generally used to refer to knowledge of objects, word meanings, facts and people, without connection to any particular time or place. The neural basis of this kind of knowledge is more or less agreed to depend on a distributed network of cortical brain regions ...


13

Wikipedia on time perception The Wikipedia article on "time perception". In particular, the section on long-term time perception cites a couple of articles. * The articles makes the common point that a unit of time as a proportion of one's life decreases with age. A few empirical studies are also cited. Ukraintseva (2001) Ukraintseva (2001) wrote an ...


12

Here are a few options. I have not tried them yet personally. LBA Scott Brown has a copy of Donkin et al (2009) on his web page with some code in R, Excel, and WinBUGS for fitting the LBA model: http://www.newcl.org/publications/DonkinAverellEtAl2009BRM.pdf http://www.newcl.org/members/chris/fitLBA.zip Diffusion model The Diffussion model is ...


11

There is "hard evidence" regarding how timing and the subjective experience of intervals changes as a function of age. McAuley et al. (2006) ran a battery of different timing and time perception tasks on participants of ages ranging from 4 to 95 years. One finding that relates to your question was that children in the range of 4 to 7 years preferred and, ...


11

Given your background and interest in modeling, I would highly recommend The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. The book provides an overview for several of the prominent modeling paradigms in cogsci, including dynamical systems, as well as many concrete examples--albeit most using other computational paradigms. Dynamical systems, to my ...


10

This is not my research field, but I'm also very interested in this topic. As far as I know there has not been much research done but two articles of interest are: Washburn, D. A. (2003). The games psychologists play (and the data they provide). Behavior research methods, instruments & computers, 35(2), 185-193. Psychonomic Society Publications. This ...


10

Video game training has long been shown to influence perceptual-motor skills, but also visual selective attention,(1) although it might well involve a mix of pre attentive and attentive processing. I have no difficulties imagining there are some key studies on fastest adaptation in children as compared to older people, where effects are probably expressed ...


10

Playing action video games improves performance in subitizing and multiple object tracking, both of which are abilities involving attending to multiple objects at once. Note that it's a causal relationship; people who don't play action video games show improvements in those two abilities after playing for a while. More generally, playing action video games ...


9

I have a similar background to you, and have found a lot of interesting things in evolutionary game theory (you can follow links from my profile for more). But on the specific content of your question: I have come across to uses of dynamic systems on the opposite ends of cognition. Beer's work on modeling minimal cognition, and Busemeyer & Townsend's ...


9

The whole of the research on this topic has some very, very serious methodological flaws, which mean there is currently surprisingly little evidence that video games or expert gamers are somehow 'special'. In particular, there are serious concerns regarding demand characteristics. Don't just take my word for it, take a look at the extremely comprehensive ...


9

I and other colleagues have published a paper on the cognitive impacts of MMORPGs: Link to full text here The work also reviews some of the literature regarding the psychology of computer games and a new framework for the understanding of cognition in the digital age. I hope this helps. Abstract: The present paper attempts to empirically study the ...


8

This should perhaps be a comment, but I don't have the reputation. The other two answers mention that a major drawback to the Bayesian approach is its lack of biological plausibility. However, see for instance: Bayesian inference with probabilistic population codes Ma, W.J. and Beck, J.M. and Latham, P.E. and Pouget, A. Nature Neuroscience, ...


8

One of Koch's collaborators, Francis Crick (yes, that Francis Crick, much later in his career), put forth an interesting theory with Koch that while perhaps is a bit far fetched, it's worth mentioning for sake of a slightly different perspective. Crick and Koch posited the claustrum (see diagram below) as one of the seats of consciousness in the brain. As ...


8

The Computational Theory of Mind is not that the mind does some form of computation in the wide sense of computation. Rather, look at the examples for the CToM given in the Wikipedia article; people like Fodor, Pinker, Marr. Their view is very much the opposite to the Connectionist position of West Coast scientists like Rumelhart, Elman and McClelland. Both ...


7

Just like brain training research - see this great recent study by Owen et al. 2010 - there is little good evidence to show any causal long term and generalisable effects of playing video games. However, to answer the original question: I found that video game players had higher speed and reasoning ability in a small sample paper based on my PhD research ...


7

Schroedingers Cat nailed a couple of important points and I need to expand it further. I believe the important roadblock in the creation of an absolutely intelligent machine is the fact that human brain is still not decrypted. There isn't a holistic cognitive model that describes how the brain functions, reacts or take decisions. Even in case such a model ...


7

I would doubt that the effect you described is an example for the positivity effect, which is a form of attributional bias, rather than connected to basic perceptual phenomena. Instead I think that the experimental results you described can be explained by a priming effect. Priming describes the phenomenon that the exposure to one stimulus influences the ...


7

Dehaene & Changeux (1991) made a neural-network model: The coding units are clusters of neurons organized in layers, or assemblies. A sensonmotor loop enables the network to sort the input cards according to several criteria (color, form, etc.). A higher-level assembly of rule-coding clusters codes for the currently tested rule, which shifts when ...


7

There are several such models in the field of auditory perception. For example Patterson 1996 [1] suggests a model that starts with a simulation of the cochlea and the neural activity and reaches up to perception; Winkler 2006 [2] reviews the process of auditory perception, again from the cochlea up to perception. Somewhat old and does not mention a ...


7

One common way of framing numerical cognition is in terms of a "mental number line". This mental number line is thought to have a logarithmic scale, so perceived differences are inversely proportional to their magnitude. For example, the difference between 6 and 7 is perceived as bigger than the difference between 76 and 77. This is just a variant of the ...


7

In general, there are two types of 'complexity' that are studied. Usually, when people talk about 'complexity', especially on the internet, they mean Santa Fe Institute style complexity. This is a vague and poorly defined concept that has struggled for a number of years without making significant progress. It uses pretty words, but has yet to deliver on any ...


6

I've always thought of Stanford Prison Experiment (and Abu Ghraib) as a situation in which group think forms a sort of feedback loop. If you agree that people behave within context of a group, and the context is created by the group itself (Hogg, 1998), then you can see what is happening. The context may at first be in line with the larger group (the ...


6

"how to build a system that can read natural language and ... understand it" I am not sure you appreciate what you are wanting here. Just this one piece requires an understanding of the processes of the mind that I don't believe we are at yet. There is a lot of material about how we MIGHT achieve this, but you would need to appreciate the whole cognative ...



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