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9

Interesting question! Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states, motivations, etc. to others and recognize that others have separate intentions, states, and motivations from his or her own. The specific phenomenon that you are describing may stem from this concept called naive realism, or the idea that we see the world as it truly is, and ...


5

Short answer: Yes, but not really... Self-enhancement: Self-enhancement (sometimes referred to as positive illusions) refers to a general preference for positive self-views (in men and women alike). It includes several common strategies, such as: The "above average effect" (aka illusory superiority), self-serving bias, and optimism bias. Optimism bias ...


5

There are two possibilities. One is that we do tend to wake up more at the climax of dreams, and that somehow our dreams can sync up with external input like an alarm clock so that the climax of the dream occurs at the same time as the alarm going off. The second is that this doesn't actually happen; the alarm is just as likely to go off at the climax of the ...


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One possible explanation for the scenario you are describing is Endowment effect. In psychology and behavioral economics, the endowment effect is the hypothesis that people ascribe more value to things merely because they own them. One of the theories that explain the phenomenon is based on loss aversion : It was proposed by Kahneman and his ...


3

Optimism bias refers to a general human tendency to underestimate the likelihood of negative events, and conversely, to overestimate the likelihood of positive events, when making predictions about which events will occur to oneself in the future. It is a cognitively interesting and widely studied phenomenon, because the human brain and human behavior are ...


2

I'd reckon this can be due to the chance of you remembering the dream when you wake up. When your dream was mundane (i.e. emotionless), you probably have no reason to remember it - when awake. (see The neuropsychology of REM sleep dreaming for more on the noradrenergic and serotonergic influences on sleeping) While sleeping, only small time-periods (usually ...


2

It is easy to fall into an interpretive bias when evaluating the capabilities of overweight people. In other words, we understand that they are not as physically capable, and therefore undervalued/underestimated due to the interpretive bias. Another thing is, similar to the idea of racism, Positive Distinctiveness kicks in. This is where, as humans, we see ...


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Taking Up John Berryman's challenge in the Comment to the Question: Most people do not develop mentally past the Concrete Operations stage or early Formal Operations (Piaget). People with this (very common and normal) level of mental development do not reason well in abstract terms and cannot do advanced symbolic manipulations. They are prone to the many ...


1

As opposed to the contrast effect which relates to stimuli that are presented simultaneously or in immediate succession, the similar distinction bias constitutes a possible/partial explanation for the phenomenon that you conjecture: stimuli are experienced as more distinct when presented simultaneously than when they are presented separately. Another bias ...


1

There are lots of commonly observed biases in surveys, and a whole field of survey methodology and statistics which investigates them. To get an idea of this, take a look at the table of contents of these journals: http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/current http://jssam.oxfordjournals.org/content/current Many people in this field are dealing with large ...


1

CBM is not so much a theoretical framework but rather a label attached to a collection of methods and biases. In a way, this reflects the state of research on heuristics and biases, at least in behavioral economics. As many famed findings in the field have come from attempts to "disprove" traditional economic theory, the resulting effects (biases) have often ...


1

For most people, I would say no, they lack the self-awareness and self-control to be able to make such a judgement. Those who have practiced a good amount of meditation would, on average, be better candidates. Moreover, nearly anyone experiencing strong emotions would have extra trouble thinking objectively and detached from personal interest. Those who can ...


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I think the most commonly used term for this is the curse of knowledge. On p1233 of Camerer et al (1989) it's defined as the phenomenon whereby "In predicting the judgments of others, agents are unable to ignore the additional information they possess." This seems to be the first time this term was used in print, although the authors state that the ...


1

This is sometimes called the "mirror imaging" bias -- imagining or assuming that other people mirror your own thoughts / beliefs / desires / intentions. See for example: The classic reference is Heuer's Psychology of Intelligence Analysis,now available from the CIA website. See Chapter 6. Scroll down to "Be wary of mirror images". It is mentioned on the ...


1

From my personal interest and research into dreaming over 12 years, I ask you to consider that the climax of a dream may actually be caused by the alarm ringing. There has been long standing hypothesis that real life content gets incorporated into one's dreams. This phenomenon is rather unpredictable, and an example would be seeing lightning strikes in a ...



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