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7

"Fixing" (compensating for) a cognitive bias means "improving the result", so by definition, the result is always better. The drawback, as stated, is in the time spent getting there. Having said that, there is a lot of research on rational / conscious thought vs. heuristic / unconscious decision-making, and this research reveals many scenarios where ...


5

I have been quite astonished by this nonsensical yet lasting quarrel. You didn't find how they disagree because they don't disagree. The sole difference is that if asked "are human rational ?", Gigerenzer answers "yes", Kahneman answers "no". However, their model of human reasoning are consistent with each other. They just don't use the word "rational" in ...


4

The question is related to a large area of research showing that people are egocentrically biased when they think about the thoughts and feelings of others. The classic study is Ross, Green and House's (1977) paper on the false consensus effect, according to which people overestimate the extent to which their own beliefs, opinions, behavioral choices, and ...


4

The question is asked – and Arnon's answer is given – based on the assumption that biases play a role only in "momentous" descisions, that is decisions that are relatively rare and can profit from rational consideration. But biases play a constant role in navigating your everyday life. For example, you don't do the Pepsi Challenge every time you buy food. ...


3

Addressing your first question (like @Josh, I would advice moving the other point to a new question), Morsanya & Handley (2008) (I can't find an open-access copy, sorry) have recently argued that heuristics have to be learned and acquired over time. They presented a group of children aged 5 - 11 with several multiple-choice reasoning tasks, consisting of ...


3

Unofficially, it's called "illusion of expectation" by Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons, the guys famous for the Invisible Gorilla experiment. Technically it falls under inattentional blindness (or perceptual blindness): "... the event in which an individual fails to recognize an unexpected stimulus that is in plain sight."


3

It's an example of the confirmation bias: Confirmation bias (...) is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses. Research has shown that people have a strong tendency to engage in a positive test strategy when investigating a hypothesis (see e.g., Klayman & Ha, 1978). That ...


2

Optimism bias refers to a general human tendency to underestimate the likelihood of negative events, and conversely, to overestimate the likelihood of positive events, when making predictions about which events will occur to oneself in the future. It is a cognitively interesting and widely studied phenomenon, because the human brain and human behavior are ...


1

I think the most commonly used term for this is the curse of knowledge. On p1233 of Camerer et al (1989) it's defined as the phenomenon whereby "In predicting the judgments of others, agents are unable to ignore the additional information they possess." This seems to be the first time this term was used in print, although the authors state that the ...


1

Our memory act as a very powerful database, being able to store a huge load of data. Thing is, that "instinctive data" you learned someday is still there. It might get erased eventually, but as it is "fetched" and used, it gets stronger. Memory retrieval act akin to a computational weighted-graph navigation, where once you need to remember something, you ...


1

I never knew the name for this before and used to just call it "awareness bias"; however, upon reading your question, I did a little bit of digging on Wikipedia and found out about the mere exposure effect, also known as the "familiarity principle" in social psychology. My other source was this page.


1

I think what you are describing here is the balance theory by Fritz Heider. The following extract is from Online Psychology Laboratory, social balance article : Heider's Balance Theory (Heider, 1946) primarily focused on perceptions of relationships in the form of a triad. This triad, typically involving two people (the perceiver and another person) ...


1

This is a very interesting question. Unfortunately, I was not able to find something that would give you a clear answer. In essence, I think this question is asking for a cognitive mechanism underlying word generation in phonemic/phonological verbal fluency test which is a matter that has rarely been addressed (Robinson et al, 2012). Studies such as the ...



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