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9

Interesting question! Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states, motivations, etc. to others and recognize that others have separate intentions, states, and motivations from his or her own. The specific phenomenon that you are describing may stem from this concept called naive realism, or the idea that we see the world as it truly is, and ...


6

The broad topic is norm theory. Kahnemann & Miller (1986) give a nice overview of the topic. The specific effect is a contrast effect. Higgins & Lurie (1983) have an experiment which matches the situation nicely. In their experiment, subjects read a series of short stories describing the sentences handed out by various judges for similar crimes. ...


5

Short answer: Yes, but not really... Self-enhancement: Self-enhancement (sometimes referred to as positive illusions) refers to a general preference for positive self-views (in men and women alike). It includes several common strategies, such as: The "above average effect" (aka illusory superiority), self-serving bias, and optimism bias. Optimism bias ...


5

There are two possibilities. One is that we do tend to wake up more at the climax of dreams, and that somehow our dreams can sync up with external input like an alarm clock so that the climax of the dream occurs at the same time as the alarm going off. The second is that this doesn't actually happen; the alarm is just as likely to go off at the climax of the ...


3

Optimism bias refers to a general human tendency to underestimate the likelihood of negative events, and conversely, to overestimate the likelihood of positive events, when making predictions about which events will occur to oneself in the future. It is a cognitively interesting and widely studied phenomenon, because the human brain and human behavior are ...


2

I'd reckon this can be due to the chance of you remembering the dream when you wake up. When your dream was mundane (i.e. emotionless), you probably have no reason to remember it - when awake. (see The neuropsychology of REM sleep dreaming for more on the noradrenergic and serotonergic influences on sleeping) While sleeping, only small time-periods (usually ...


1

It is easy to fall into an interpretive bias when evaluating the capabilities of overweight people. In other words, we understand that they are not as physically capable, and therefore undervalued/underestimated due to the interpretive bias. Another thing is, similar to the idea of racism, Positive Distinctiveness kicks in. This is where, as humans, we see ...


1

I think the most commonly used term for this is the curse of knowledge. On p1233 of Camerer et al (1989) it's defined as the phenomenon whereby "In predicting the judgments of others, agents are unable to ignore the additional information they possess." This seems to be the first time this term was used in print, although the authors state that the ...


1

This is sometimes called the "mirror imaging" bias -- imagining or assuming that other people mirror your own thoughts / beliefs / desires / intentions. See for example: The classic reference is Heuer's Psychology of Intelligence Analysis,now available from the CIA website. See Chapter 6. Scroll down to "Be wary of mirror images". It is mentioned on the ...


1

A few options. You could start with an open ended question and then move to closed ended questions for leading brands and perhaps any other options listed in the previously open ended process. You could use an input box that takes text and shows partial matches which people then select (e.g., a bit like in Facebook when selecting a friend)


1

it seems that you can use randomization of options to decrease bias. That is, present every respondent with multiple choices but in completely random order. Also, bias might be directly tested on two groups, say A&B. Only difference will be the order of available answers. This manual seems to be very helpful: Handbook of Survey Research, Ch.9 Question ...


1

From my personal interest and research into dreaming over 12 years, I ask you to consider that the climax of a dream may actually be caused by the alarm ringing. There has been long standing hypothesis that real life content gets incorporated into one's dreams. This phenomenon is rather unpredictable, and an example would be seeing lightning strikes in a ...


1

Our memory act as a very powerful database, being able to store a huge load of data. Thing is, that "instinctive data" you learned someday is still there. It might get erased eventually, but as it is "fetched" and used, it gets stronger. Memory retrieval act akin to a computational weighted-graph navigation, where once you need to remember something, you ...



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