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7

The actual act of "Trying to see only the sentence which confirms his beliefs" would generally be called confirmation bias.


7

Perhaps people are attracted to these theories in part because of the inability for mainstream science to answer anomalies. The occasion of governmental lying, hiding of technology, and corruption, helps reinforce the idea that there exists real Science that is not known to the mainstream. In the absence of trust, people contemplate the ...


6

Déformation professionnelle is probably the closest match: Déformation professionnelle is a French phrase, meaning a tendency to look at things from the point of view of one's own profession rather than from a broader perspective. It is often translated as "professional deformation" or "job conditioning". The implication is that professional training, ...


5

I think there is a misperception at work in your question. There is a wide variety of objects that we never perceive in such a binary manner: colors, fruit (apples, oranges, plums, ...), weather, and basically every other concrete objects. The only things we perceive in a binary fashion are abstract ideas! Good versus evil. Liberal versus conservative. And ...


5

If you had asked about cognitive distortions, I probably could've answered straight away about one of those! I think it might be an illusion of transparency. Your example somewhat aligns to the definition provided by Gilovich, Medvec & Savitsky (1998): "... we refer to this tendency to overestimate the extent to which others can read one's internal ...


4

There are now many full-length books that focus on this deep, complex question about human nature/psychology and note newer/ongoing/active research in the area, some of it cited in them. Why people believe weird things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time Shermer and Gould Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud Park ...


4

Message length is a peripheral cue in the elaboration likelihood model. This means that a message's length affects the likelihood that its recipient will be persuaded when the recipient is not scrutinizing the message's content attentively. When a message is evaluated through peripheral attention instead of central focus, simple heuristics that are easily ...


3

It seems like a casual version of the illusion of validity, but the illusion of validity is a more general bias that additional data generates additional validity. It's often used more in a lab setting then a debate setting, where an additional experiment may be included to lend support to a hypothesis, but the experimental outcome isn't actually surprising ...


3

The problem with this question is that the answer depends on your definition of psychological health. In Civilization and Its Discontents Freud argued that civilization itself is a source of suffering and that basically all civilized human beings develop neurotic symptoms due to the repression of their drives. According to this theory the prevalence of ...


3

Not entirely sure what specific stats you'd be interested in, but Wikipedia has plenty on prevalences of specific mental disorders. For anxiety disorders, which include obsessive compulsive disorder: A review that pooled surveys in different countries up to 2004 found overall average prevalence estimates for any anxiety disorder of 10.6% (in the 12 ...


3

Egocentrism? I can't even find the Family Circus comic where the boy is talking on the phone, playing with a yo-yo, and says, "Look what I can do, grandma!" Update: Huh, I didn't find that comic, but it's still a Family Circus comic that accompanies the topic. Grandma: "Tell me, Jeffy, what was this fun dream about last night?" Jeffy: "Don't you remember, ...


3

I've been going through your question a couple of times now and I find it quite tricky to get all the details. So please correct me, if I misunderstood you in some point. Basically you have a test and your subjects have to determine if a stimulus belongs to a certain category or not. Of the three possible features, one is a perfect indicator for a specific ...


3

Self-report methodology was one of my qualifying exam topics as a doctoral student of social and personality psychology, so I've got a ton of references to offer, but I confess I haven't read most of them very thoroughly (if at all), and I've forgotten where exactly I've read some of this. It's really a very broad topic as well, so I won't list most I know ...


2

I hope you still see this. I don't know a specific term for the exact kind of problem you mentioned. However, I would think that it can be explained by linguistic as well as cognitive or memory processes. Hence, my proposed explanation comes in two parts. Linguistics One view would be that it has to do with how we interpret language, specifically that we ...


2

I think the most common verbage would be Poseur Though often used in subcultural contexts, 'posuer / poser' means someone who affects an attitude or position — which is very much the case when someone comes in from an external field and acts with the authority of a resident expert. Still, I stand by my position that this question is best served at ...


2

People base their perceptions of performance, in part, on their preconceived notions about their skills. Because these notions often do not correlate with objective performance, they can lead people to make judgments about their performance that have little to do with actual accomplishment. This is an example of the Dunnig-Kruger effect[1] Simply ...


2

This kind of thinking can be connected simply with psychoticism, which is classed as personality trait by Eysenck (1976). One pole of this trait is connected with altriusm and pro-social behaviours and the second one with psychopathy, schizofrenic and criminality behaviours. More: 1) Eysenck, H. J (1976) Psychoticism as a dimension of personality 2) Erik ...


1

Binary processes may be observed at various stages of intuitive and deliberative thought, which may in some cases plausibly be modelled as categories, but you’ll want to consider that on a case-by-case basis. Many of the relevant processes are binary simply because like formal logic, they involve toggle switches (true/false). Heuristics The simplifying ...


1

Egocentrism may be the more general answer. The fundamental nature of conscious human experience is individualized, such that everyone's perspective is anchored to oneself in many ways. One such way is through the influence of our senses, which receive information about life from points within our bodies (obviously). This is probably the majority of the ...



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