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4

I don't think anyone has ever bothered (though Ralph Miller might disagree), since many of the 'failures' are outside of the model's purview. The model expresses as simply as possible the profound insight that we learn most when our expectations are not met. Many features of learning won't conform to this general principle (spontaneous recovery) but it ...


3

To answer your question, you really have to specify what animal your talking about, some animals simply won't live long enough for learning to be an effective mechanism. If there are few predators, evolution will favour animals who are less vigilant about checking for potential predators generally, since this costs time (Google search vigilance behavioral ...


3

Giving a dollar to homeless people on the street serves no aid to the donor, since the only difference is who has that dollar, and clearly to have the dollar is better than not. This action is therefore entirely altruistic.


2

I'm not 100% sure if this is what you were intending to ask, because your initial opening was about generation Z (which is at the large cultural level) while on the other hand your question written in bold seemed to be geared towards the individual. I have tried incorporating both parts into this answer. In essence I could not tell between which of the two ...


1

I encourage you to read what evolutionary psychology has to say about what you're talking about. This science is maybe the origin of your "dark" vision but it is due to a common oversimplification. As my explanation could be no way better than Steven Pinker's one about this issue, I extract here this paragraphs that contain a clarification about your ...


1

I have cats. Whenever I let them out into the garden, the birds in the trees start chattering like crazy. Probably they are warning each other of these predators. When they're back in the house, the birds stop. Interestingly, they have no reaction to my dog. In this case, I guess the birds pass on the knowledge by warning each other whenever they see a ...


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"Contingent" means "dependent upon". See the first definition of http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/contingent?s=t The reason the second definition there (which is the one you are thinking of) has the same word is because if B is contingent on A, then B is not for sure going to happen. B will only happen if A does.



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