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17

Yes and No By the standards of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (or DSM-IV in its current form), perhaps the most prominent all-in-one manual to assist physicians in accurately defining a patient's disorder, has specific criteria for a disorder, including: is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability ...


14

I think part of the answer to your question is going to include the dopamine "reward" pathway in the basal ganglia. In particular, a leading theory of dopaminergic function is the predictive reward error or reinforcement learning hypothesis. In this theory, dopamine neurons signal expectations about the outcome of particular stimuli. Some key experiments ...


13

For instance, the same behavior was also shown in orang-utan and dog. Already two years after the study by Skinner (1947) mentioned in the news article, Kellogg (1949) gave a review of some of the experimental results, but advocates a less anthropomorphic interpretation: Kellogg, W. N. (1949) 'Superstitious' behavior in animals. Psychological Review, Vol ...


12

The change that is relevant to your question is not that from a rural farming life to an urban office-working one, but the neolithic revolution. In early prehistory and during the palaeolithic period, our ancestors lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers. They did nothing but hunt and gather food. When they were sated, they relaxed. Because they had no fridges, ...


11

In a two-alternative forced choice task with Mongolian Gerbils, Illango et al. (2010) compared the effectiveness of appetitive, aversive, and a combination of appetitive and aversive reinforcers. They conclude that the combination of appetitive and aversive reinforcers led to the highest speed of acquisition to maximum possible performance and delayed ...


10

I think cognitive scientists would say that these views are compatible, insofar as cogsci admits results from behaviorism as valid results to be explained by understanding the cognitive constructs underlying them. Obviously (they would say) we have minds, our minds arise from physical processes in our brains, and as such have internal states that sometimes ...


9

The problem is that this doesn't fall under any of these conditioning definitions in behaviourism because the store isn't really trying to condition a response. They're just trying to get you to do one thing once. The behavioural techniques you mention are designed so that you get an organism to make a conditioned response spontaneously whenever the ...


8

Although it would be hard to experiment on dead peasants, I believe that the Status Quo Bias promotes the idea that laziness is a human trait. You can see the orignal research here, or just google the term. Samuelson, W., & Zeckhauser, R. (1988). Status quo bias in decision making. Journal of risk and uncertainty, 1(1), 7-59.


7

For sake of covering all my bases, I'll begin with brief, simple definitions (that I'm sure you probably know, but can't say for others). Much of the material is heavily paraphrased or explained in references listed. Positive reinforcement is the process by which certain consequences of a response increase the probability that the response will recur. ...


7

First, the concept of optimality of a learning curve is not well defined. You can measure at least 3 different aspects of learning: Speed of learning Time before extinction Performance at peak Of course, there may be other measures as well, and any combination of such measure may also be a legitimate measure for certain uses. Conditioned Taste Aversion ...


6

A possible way to try to answer this, is to analyze usage of words such as lazy versus words such as diligent over the years. As a toy example, I used Google Ngram viewer to compare the frequency in which the words lazy, indolent and slothful are used in the main part of a sentence, to the frequency in which the words diligent, industrious, and laborious are ...


6

Neurobiology is not my field of expertise, but this paper seems relevant: Kent C. Berridge, Chao-Yi Ho, Jocelyn M. Richard, Alexandra G. DiFeliceantonio (2010) The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders. Brain Research, 1350, 43-64. What we eat, when and how much, all are influenced by brain reward mechanisms ...


5

First of all, asymmetries in apparently symmetric creatures (of which most are) are actually quite typical. However, in most cases of hand dominance, there is no population-wide hand dominance. In other words, the population is split 50/50 between left and right handers. In humans, however, a lack of hand dominance is often associated with cognitive ...


5

It seems that what you are getting at might be related to “akrasia” or “weakness of the will” (those two are slightly different ideas). Roughly, it's the experience that you know something to be the right course of action, want (in some sense) to follow it but still do not succeed in actually doing it. Since classical Greek philosophers have written about ...


5

In psychology, you have two types of measurement: either a trained observer judges the behavior of the subjects without them having to actively partake in any kind of test or experiment; or the test subjects fill in a test (self-report) or take part in an experiment. Obviously the mood in a city cannot be re-created and measured in an experiment, but you ...


4

Yes, you can think of biological entities as algorithms, but that doesn't give you any explanatory power. Unfortunately, most people have little to no understanding of algorithms, and how little actually constraint is imposed on something when you say it is "algorithmic". In particular, there is no restrictions on algorithms that require them to be ...


4

I am pretty sure that you will not find a paper that tries to give purely behaviorist interpretations of decision field theory (or other similar models of decision making), because that would not make sense at all. As you noted in your initial question, decision field theory is a cognitive model, i.e., it tries to explain overt behavior in terms of ...


4

You wrote: For the purposes of this question I would assume that it's fairly common knowledge in psychology that people touch nose or cover the mouth when saying something part of them does not believe to be true. Avoid make assumptions like this. This is not common knowledge, and in fact it is not even true. Vrij et al. (2010) discuss the literature ...


4

Unanswered questions don't necessarily cause cognitive dissonance. Need for closure varies across individuals; some of us don't mind having some (or even many) unanswered questions much at all. One also moves forward along a path while "looping," and that path isn't necessarily infinite; in fact, it probably isn't for any mortal, practically speaking. For ...


4

We are driven by this need to find answer to our questions. Many questions arise from one's mind by experiencing new events or feelings, or having to sort out a cognitive dissonance. An example of this would be the need for victims to find the guilty. When we can’t immediately gratify our desire to know, we become highly motivated to reach a concrete ...


4

A great open lecture set is Human Behavioral Biology by Robert Sopolsky through Stanford. It's on YouTube. I also recommend Paul Bloom's Intro to Psych through Yale open courses.


4

The Benjamin Franklin Effect is generally cited as being an example of cognitive dissonance, which is when your brain struggles to reconcile your beliefs with your actions. So let’s say your beliefs about your job are that you deserve to be paid a higher rate, you deserve to be treated more respectfully by your employer and your skills are being wasted in ...


4

It seems to be related to a kind of "Peer pressure". This is due the change of the context. A profound discussion is regarded as confidential talk and you will notice that the voice volume is lower than a discussion with many people. But why is a profound discussion regarded as confidential? Maybe because you could touch scientific taboos. Every time you ...


3

I experience empathy to the extent that it causes massive social phobia and other such problems. Other human beings end up being a constant sort of noise even when they're silent and being around them too often drains me of all my energy, but I don't actually produce my own emotions a lot of the time (or I can't recognize them as well not sure) so being left ...


3

If you think of the stimulus being represented by a distributed set of features (Tanifuji et al., 2001), then I would not say it was a failure to discriminate. During the conditioned response training for Albert, all features were present as the stimuli. It wasn't that he couldn't discriminate the features, just that each of the features were trained as ...


3

No. Algorithmic behavior can be observed in organisms, but an organism cannot be reduced to just algorithms because the information processing is tightly coupled to the physical hardware, which evolves continuously and (largely) deterministically. That is, nature doesn't break behaviors into discrete algorithmic steps. Similar to how humans break up the ...



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