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12

First, it is not only your intuition - there are many experimental results showing that we first perceive the gist of scenes (for example, is it outdoors or indoors?), then the major parts of it (was there an animal, or a human figure in it?) then more and more details (is that figure male or female? what is her expression?) [1] [2]. Note, however, that it ...


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As part of my PhD within the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), one of the things I am trying to support the user in is multitasking. This might be relevant for you since interruptions and multitasking are highly interlinked. I'll refer you to some of the key papers I encountered during my background research, including some on the effects of ...


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General Review of Mindfulness Meditation on Cognitive Performance There is a review article Chiesa et al (2011) which would provide a good starting point. They review 23 studies looking at the effect of mindfulness meditation on performance on objective cognitive tests. Twenty three studies providing measures of attention, memory, executive ...


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Wickens et al. (2003) is the earliest I'm aware of: Wickens, C. D., Goh, J., Helleberg, J., Horrey, W. J., & Talleur, D. A. (2003). Attentional models of multitask pilot performance using advanced display technology. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 45(3), 360-380. Actually, in that paper he cites ...


5

Increasing Concentration A method that is geared espeacially towards reading scientific texts is SQ3R. SQ3R is short for survey, question, read, recite and review. So instead of "just reading" a text, one is supposed to survey it first to grasp the basic outline by reading the abstract, introduction or table of contents formulate questions as to what it ...


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All truly great thoughts are conceived while walking.                          ~ Friedrich Nietzsche, Twilight of the Idols Movement promotes cognitive performance. Either take breaks and exercise, as you already do, or set up your ...


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ISO 9241, a standard covering ergonomics of human-computer interaction, defines in its subsection 9241-110, "Dialogue Principles", that the interface in information systems should be (among other things): suitable for the task facilitate learning conform with user expectations describe its own purpose and functioning You could translate all this to: ...


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From the Wall Street Journal: Office workers are interrupted—or self-interrupt—roughly every three minutes, academic studies have found, with numerous distractions coming in both digital and human forms. Once thrown off track, it can take some 23 minutes for a worker to return to the original task, says Gloria Mark, a professor of informatics at the ...


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Neville Moray has given permission for his answer (provided via personal correspondence) to be quoted here: "Treisman said that physical characteristics such as loudness or pitch were not attenuated by selective attention, because although you can't hear semantic information from rejected messages in shadowing experiments, you can hear changes in pitch, or ...


4

If what you are seeking is how to present material so that cognitive overload does not occur, you are in the realm of learning theory.[1] Cognitive load theory and schema (learning) theory go hand in hand in. Schemas are frameworks of information (like a steel-framed skyscraper in your mind); they start as very basic ("This is a cell") and become more ...


4

The phenomenon you describe is called the global precedence effect, and was first studied extensively by David Navon (1977). One way to measure this effect is to create conflict between global and local features. For example, Navon presented observes with letter stimuli that were globally organised into different letters, such as; Observers were ...


4

The answer ought to be a qualified "Yes." We don't only hear what we want, in as much as motivation has zero direct control over the transduction of auditory signals in a sensory sense. Motivation affects which way we turn our ears and whether we keep them in a room with sounds we want to hear vs. a room with sounds we don't want to hear, but if those sounds ...


4

Sounds like a class of faults resulting mainly from a common sequence: habituation, automation, assimilation, discrimination error. Habituation. The tasks you describe are generally simple, ordinary, and as you say, there is a "correct" way to do them that is known. This would encourage a heuristic-based approach to problem-solving response generation. ...


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Intuition and implicit learning I recommend you have a read through Lieberman's (2000) review and theory article on intuition. Lieberman argues that intuition is a cognitive and behavioural consequence of implicit learning processes. Intuition is contrasted with more deliberate thought processes. It also reflects situations where it is often not possible ...


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The answer is "yes." The entire field of Human Factors and Ergonomics is devoted to enhancing the experience of the human user. Cognitive engineering is the branch of human factors that focuses specifically on how people perceive and respond to system interfaces. Engineers and scientists in this field try to design components, systems, interfaces, and even ...


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Assuming you're getting at a related idea to your other recent question (Does a more ergonomic and user friendly interface/device make the human brain work less?), I wouldn't worry about user friendliness causing mental atrophy by precluding the need for thought. Thought continues well beyond matters of control to matters of application and optimization. ...


4

I think this is an interesting, but difficult question to answer. Hemispatial neglect patients do not typically have problem with visual pathways per se. Wikipedia suggests that the disorder is most closely linked to damage of the temporo-parietal junction and posterior parietal cortex, areas associated with attention. Thus, the sensation (e.g. on the ...


3

I think you probably need to more clearly define what you mean by distraction - what sorts of events or objects in the world distract, and what does it mean to be distracted? - but between subjects differences in susceptibility to distraction have been noted in the literature on field dependency at least ...


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I don't know much about this, but here are a few review articles (see here for more) that you could look at: Heilman, K. M., & Valenstein, E. (1979). Mechanisms underlying hemispatial neglect. Annals of Neurology, 5(2), 166-170. http://www.arts.uwaterloo.ca/~raha/CogSci600_web/Readings/Danckert3.pdf Parton, A., Malhotra, P., & Husain, M. (2004). ...


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Dual Task research In general, I think a lot depends on what is the secondary task and how it relates to the primary task (see human multitasking). In general, secondary tasks tend to lower performance on the primary task. A classic combinations where there may be facilitation is music with gross motor tasks, where the music is often experienced as ...


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Our research and clinical studies with hundreds of people over a 40 year period as educators and counselors revealed to us that people have gut feelings that relate to two specific instinctual needs and gut responses of acceptance (attention) and freedom (control of one;s one responses). Our gut feelings of emptiness and fullness (not to be confused with ...


2

One important factor to consider is whether the separate tasks involve the same kind of mental process. For instance, among these multi-tasking scenarios: listen to someone and read something at the same time listen to someone and walk walk and read something at the same time $\#1$ is generally harder than $\#2$, partly because both of its tasks involve ...


2

Ha, I was going to mention the Kok Neuron paper :) The Cerebral Cortex one does not use decoding however. This one may also be of interest to you: Vetter, P., Smith, F. W., & Muckli, L. (2014). Decoding Sound and Imagery Content in Early Visual Cortex. Current Biology, 24(11), 1256-1262. Lars Muckli is in general someone who might have more of the ...


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N.B.: There are many varieties of "Stroop-like" tasks, which as a class are often called implicit association tests or IATs. Since those are likely to test attributes related to their specific construction, I have excluded them from this answer. There have been a variety of papers studying correlations of Stroop performance with other characteristics. ...


1

Q: What is the reason for people to implicitly trust their peers in extreme (or not) situations? Reliance is basically the dependence or trust in someone, to each lies a limited capability of being relied on due to our limited capacity as human beings. What I'm trying to imply is that your friend might have been able to consciously lead you across the ...


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I am not aware of any use in using "high audio frequencies" in commercials, but there is a history of making commercials louder (presumably to attract attention). There are laws prohibiting increasing the loudness of commercials (e.g., CALM Act). Increasing the loudness, without remotely adjusting the volume on the TV is not a trivial thing and potentially ...


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Hi there had the same problem but i found the original report: Wickens, C. D., Helleberg, J., Goh, J., Xu, X., & Horrey, W. J. (2001). Pilot Task Management: Testing an Attentional Expected Value Model of Visual Scanning (Technical Report No. ARL-01-14/NASA-01-7). NASA Ames Research Center. Retrieved from ...


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Setting aside the encyclopedic issue of what might make an unspecified stimulus funny, beautiful, or otherwise pleasing for its aesthetics, it's at least evident that you're asking about reinforcing stimuli that provide incentives via emotional reward(s). It's not clear how you expect to rule out conscious interest, but reinforcement learning may not ...


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Whether you tell them is going to depend on what you are trying to accomplish. What is the nature of the cues? If they capture strictly exogenous attention, what you tell won't affect how they allocate their attention because orienting is completely involuntary. However, if the cues involve your participants having to decide to redirect their attention, ...


1

The book The Power of Habit brought up a tale in the first chapter about a man who lost the capability of storing long term memory because of brain damage. He could not remember conversations or TV shows he watched just 10 minutes ago. He could still walk and have normal conversations, just that he would repeat the same questions. However, his man was able ...



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