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8

The subjects in this experiment were randomly assigned in two groups (prisoner versus guard). They were all healthy and without any identified psychological issues. I quote from the Setting-Up page of your linked website: We wanted to see what the psychological effects were of becoming a prisoner or prison guard. To do this, we decided to set up a ...


7

There is a condition called hypochondriases by proxy (e.g., Moreira & Moreira, 1999). It is also referred to as vulnerable child syndrome (Pacurar et al., 2015). The parent, particularly if (s)he is inexperienced or unsupported, might see symptoms and illness in a child where in fact there are none. For instance, the parent might be convinced that a ...


5

Short answer: Bipolar disorder is probably not composed of two comorbid illnesses, but it may be on a continuum that includes some depressive disorders. This is a good question, though it does convey some confusion associated with this diagnosis that should be cleared up. Bipolar symptoms: The first confusion I think is the idea that "depression", "mania",...


4

Yes, they can coexist. No, they aren't opposites. How could they be? Both ADHD and OCD affect a variety of different brain regions, and its effects are not consistent in every person. Maybe if OCD and all its symptoms were always caused by an excess of dopamine in one specific pathway in the reward system, whereas ADHD and all its symptoms was always caused ...


4

Part of the very basic components of abnormal psychology suggests that any behaviour that could be dangerous to oneself or another individual could qualify for a diagnosis for mental illness. But, this is only when other factors are taken into account, for example the presence of dysfunctional behaviour that hinders appropriate functioning in society. (Comer,...


4

Sounds to me like someone is making a logical fallacy here, though the origin of this fallacy isn't clear to me. We cannot go from 'poor academic performance', to 'not amounting to anything', to 'having a low IQ'. These are not relationships of cause and effect. The motivation to do something ('amount to something', if you will) is driven primarily by the ...


4

What you are referring to is something called dissociative fugue. It is characterized as an official psychiatric disorder and dissociative disorder in the DSM-5, and its prevalence has been estimated at 0.2%, though it is much more common in connection with wars, accidents, and natural disasters. The disorder is characterized by reversible amnesia for all ...


4

Question 1: I am unaware of any studies directly addressing the epidemiology of self-medication with cannabis in cases of treatment-resistant depression (it seems like that is what you are asking about). However, there are several lines of therapy that have demonstrated effectiveness in depression beyond the first line antidepressants (CANMAT Depression ...


3

As a percentage of their endeavours, do those with a tendency to use bullying focus more or less on sociopaths as a per capita of their targets? Thanks for this interesting question. Based on my research the short answer appears to be that there is no clear evidence either way. The longer answer is that this is probably too complicated a question to ...


3

There are two ways to interpret/answer this question. First, is there a recognized disorder that is characterized by mania in the absence of depression? Second, are there people who experience mania in the absence of depression? The answer to the first interpretation is no. There is currently no "major manic disorder" or "unipolar mania." Given the DSM-5 ...


3

I myself have never found evidence to suggest a difference between perseveration and hyperfocus when referring to ADHD. However, while 'hyperfocus' can be a psychiatric or non-psychiatric condition, perseveration is typically considered a psychiatric condition in all instances. The wikipedia page for hyperfocus has an entire section dedicated to the ...


3

According to the empathy-altruism hypothesis, in some circumstances, people help because they genuinely care about the welfare of the other person and not because of any other personal goal i.e. avoid distress, social norm, Self-affirmation etc. The empathy-altruism hypothesis basically states that psychological altruism does exist and is evoked by the ...


2

Why would I be asked to count backwards by 3, from 100 in a psychological test? This is to test your cognitive reasoning abilities, particularly your ability to concentrate and recall serial information. Similar tests are administered to injured sports players to ensure that they do not have a concussion. 1 What's a baker's dozen? What do you think "...


2

There actually is the same kind of controversy over depression. The French documentary Dépression, une épidémie mondiale nicely summarizes how a well-meant change in diagnostic criteria (from DSM-IV to DSM-5) backfired and the pharmacoceutical industry now use this to diagnose every sadness or exhaustion as depression with the intention to sell drugs and ...


2

The scope of Yalom's mainstream branch is pretty much the same as that of existential psychotherapy, and psychodynamic therapy in general. According to Yalom (p. 9-10): The dynamic existential approach retains the basic dynamic structure outlined by Freud, but radically alters the content. The old formula of DRIVE -> ANXIETY -> DEFENSE MECHANISM is ...


2

So there's a lot of things to talk about here. First off, there are many strategies one can use to regulate stress. James Gross, for example, has put forward an incredibly influential process model of the strategies we might use. His work and others have pointed to: Distraction Reappraisal (reinterpreting the situation) Expressive suppression Thought ...


2

Robot-assisted therapy doesn't automatically mean that it is separate kind of therapy. You may for example teach an imitation by ABA principles with the robot. In other words, you are following traditional therapies but also using a robot. Kids may benefit from robot-assisted therapy primarily because robots are usually reinforcement for them, i.e. kids ...


2

The problem with ADHD is that it doesn't really have its own trademark indicator, the way that schizophrenia might or Aspberger's might. There are several different subtypes of ADHD, and they tend to look different from each other, particularly in the instance of ADHD with hyperactivity and ADHD-PI (primarily inattentive). Even then, there are plenty of ...


2

This website http://www.aboutdyscalculia.org/causes.html provides answers to some of the questions you posed, although I am not sure it is the most up to date information. I would always advise one to do research on more scientific grounds. From my perspective, dyslexia has also been more studied than dyscalculia as its impact in academics seem more easily ...


2

Regarding schizophrenia and loss of IQ: I don't know how much we can say about the 'loss' of IQ in schizophrenia patients. If anything, it appears to me that a decrease in overall IQ is augmented by the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. This isn't to say that you can't increase your IQ with certain interventions, which I will touch on ...


2

I hope the few sources below answer your question. I strongly recommend you read actual sources as opposed to the parts I have quoted. I don't know much about this topic so I did not attempt to translate anything in laymen terms, since I might have distorted or misinterpreted information in the process. However, the three sources below are one of the best-...


2

I think this is a borderline question. As a rule of thumb, we do not answer questions about individual health problems in favor of asking the author to see a professional, for both ethical and practical reasons. And let me be absolutely unequivocal here: you should see a professional. But this is fundamentally a general question about self-diagnosis, so I'm ...


2

Upon closer examination, it appears that Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria is a term that was coined by Dr. William Dodson to describe the phenomenon of rejection sensitivity in ADHD sufferers. It does not appear to be a 'valid' term, in the sense that there is no DSM definition. In fact, it seems that Dodson himself is the only one to have used the term. Dodson ...


2

Suppose someone were to see a psychiatrist, explain their life problems and such and then their psychiatrist concludes they are currently in a depressive episode. Their psychiatrist doesn't yet know if they have major depressive disorder - MDD - bipolar disorder or no disorder. Are there situations where someone in such scenario might be able to ...


2

The answer to this question depends on your ultimate goal. If you want to know whether or not students at this school are more likely to suffer from a psychopathology/s, you'll need to compare them to some other population. This other normative population can be students at another school, students in the country, students in the world etc. If you don't have ...


1

It is not clear the context in which you expect an answer. For example, should it be considered from a legal, ethical, survival, or psychological standpoint? I would expect the answers aimed at different philosophies to differ quite a bit. Let me address a few of your questions, at least as I understood them in your posting. Can the person being "ignored" ...


1

Depressants belong to a general class of drugs that decrease activity in one or more parts of the nervous system. Depression in the usual sense of the word comprises a particular subset of depressed states, particulars as it refers to lack of happiness or drive. Not all depressed states are considered depression in the common sense of the word. Similarly, ...


1

The difference is in consistency. Bipolar disorder there is usually episodic; quick, drastic changes between normality, mania, depression and anger. ADHD on the other hand is chronic and affects attention and behavior rather than mood. Anger is of course a symptom but usually only situational. Over a period of time, bursts of anger and other moods can be ...


1

Elliot et al. (2008) define a hallucination as: A sensory experience which occurs in the absence of corresponding external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ, has sufficient sense of reality resemble a veridical perception (i.e. the perception seems to be "real"), over which the subject does not feel direct and voluntary control, and which occurs ...


1

Actually,if you saw a few of Dr. Barkley's presentations. He referred to people with autism spectrum disorder as hyperfocus because they focused immensely on fine details of their sensations and their environments. While this hyperfocus, lacks the big picture perception. For instance, the child with autism might focus on the car wheel, while not attending to ...



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