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8

It's a matter of degree. First of all, "shyness" is not a psychological or psychiatric term, but an everyday English word denoting a commonly observable personality characteristic on a par with courage, cheerfulness, or honesty. The meaning of "shyness" is not exactly defined, and people may use the word "shyness" to refer to different kinds of behaviors, ...


7

At some level, it's true that psychology reduces to biology and chemistry. If it didn't, then the widely-accepted view of physicialism/materialism would be wrong. But just because psychology can (in theory) be reduced to biochemistry, reductionism may not be the most productive way to approach the problem, for a couple of reasons: The causes of ...


7

The diseases and mental dysfunctions that have been studied are Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, ADHD, Substance Dependence, Autism, Multiple Sclerosis and Schizophrenia (with and without tardive dyskenisia). I'll add more specific statistics (such as trials required to acquire first rule) and better references later. In the meantime, during my ...


6

Ironically enough, Wikipedia does offer as meaningful a distinction as any of the answers here so far: The term sociopathy may have been first introduced in 1909 in Germany by biological psychiatrist Karl Birnbaum and in 1930 in the US by educational psychologist George E. Partridge, as an alternative to, or a subtype of, the concept of psychopathy.[137] ...


6

Pornography laws are a relic of the Victorian era, and not based on any science. Research that can conclusively determine the effect of pornography on children is hard to come by due to the resultant ethical environment. Most research depends on self-reports: Surveys ask adolescents how much pornography they have been exposed to, and attempt to correlate ...


5

You never know what's gonna offend someone...That being said, "hallucinations in people with schizophrenia" does seem the safer option, but "schizophrenics" (not capitalized) is used plenty often. Here's an interesting Google result: Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA) is a self-help group for persons who have schizophrenia or a schizophrenia-related illness. ...


5

The DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) doesn't distinguish between megalomania and narcissism. The most recent edition of the DSM (DSM-5) classifies both as a form of narcissistic personality disorder.


5

The Yahoo Lifestyle website gives a popular description of the following study: Fox & Rooney. The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences 76 (2015) 161–165 The study basically concludes that in a population of males (and I ...


5

'Mental Illness' covers such a broad range of illnesses that it would be very difficult to answer your question. However, general consensus is that: people who are receiving an effective treatment for a mental illness are no more violent or dangerous than neurotypical/ 'healthy' people. People with a mental illness are more likely to harm themselves or to ...


4

Jocasta complex syndrome is what you are referring to. In psychoanalytic analysis, the Jocasta complex is the incestuous sexual desire of a mother towards her son. SOURCE


4

Intuitively, I would also see disgust or fear of contamination as a plausible pathway. However, the explanation that has been discussed in the literature is that trypophobia-eliciting stimuli have basic visual characteristics that are also found in highly poisonous animals (Cole & Wilkins, 2013). Quoting their abstract: Phobias are usually described ...


4

There have been many proposed explanations for the condition. The explanation which seems to have gained traction states that an individual with Capgras syndrome experiences a "disconnect" between the part of the brain that recognizes faces and the part of the brain that processes emotion. Thus, the person may see someone who looks like his brother, but does ...


4

It appears you have heard correctly, at least in a sense: there are no peer reviewed treatments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) itself. On the other hand, this does not constitute evidence that narcissists cannot be treated, either. A review of the NPD literature by Dhawan, Kunik, Oldham and Coverdale (2010) reported an absence of evidence one ...


3

There is a substantial body of literature addressing each of these questions (why do people quit therapy and what predicts positive outcomes); unfortunately there are no easy answers. In part, this is because the literature has looked at these questions from a range of angles, including client characteristics (age, race, gender, motivation, education level, ...


3

Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is an extremely rare disorder. It is so rare, there appears to be no available prevalence studies. In the AHS literature, case studies are therefore nearly universal. For all intents and purposes, it is reasonable to say that AHS appears to be a disease so rare that the empirical prevalence rates are in every listed case ...


3

Actually, reconceptualization is only one tool of CBT. The basis is still what you might call "conditioning" or "skills training" (depending on the disorder). The depressed person does not "think away" (or "feel away") his depression, but learns and practices new behaviors until they become habitual. And it is this behavior change that leads to different ...


3

The article you link to is fairly comprehensive, and probably already answers your questions. Dissociative Identity Disorder is no longer referred to as multiple personality disorder. This is a highly misunderstood disorder, and involves many possible symptoms besides the appearance of "alters". "The diagnosis itself remains controversial among mental ...


3

This question is quite broad, firstly, because these tests measure different (though interrelated) cognitive faculties and at different developmental stages and secondly because there is a lot to say for each sensory impairment. However, it touches on quite interesting topics for which there have been many studies and I think a summary of the findings can be ...


3

Seizures induced by stroboscopic lights are an example of reflex seizures. This type of epilepsy includes seizures evoked by touch and movements as well. The mechanism behind generalized reflex seizures (generalized epilepsy, as opposed to partial epilepsies, is accompanied by a loss of consciousness) was abstracted nicely by Ferlazzo et al, 2005: ...


3

There are many who will tell you authoritatively that a disease is acquired (e.g. infection, cancer, etc.) whereas disorder is something curable or genetic. These are imprecise and untrue. Basically a disturbance in normal functioning can be either a disorder or a disease, regardless of it's curability or method of acquisition. From your link, the second ...


3

The ICD and DSM definitions can be a bit opaque, but there are several criteria that are usually considered necessary for diagnosis. Different practitioners may diagnose more conservatively or more pervasively, but those differences are based on their professional experience, and they are all meant to interpret from similar guidelines. Because there are ...


3

Interesting question! Assuming you are talking about stuttering, as occurs in about 1% of the population (Sommer et al., 2003), as opposed to non-pathological stammering during stressful situations that many more people experience, my answer is as follows: Stress and speech disruption in stutterers are undoubtedly related (e.g., Craig, 1999). In fact, ...


3

A Love Circuit? The idea that there is a "love circuit" has little evidence (for or against it). But in general studies that look at "love" (however defined) reveal broad activation across multiple intrinsic neural networks that are involved in many different cognitive processes (in favor of a constructivist view of emotions). Consider the image from a ...


3

Cognitive science generally does not try to explain individual behavior, but rather the behavior of all people. We can meaningfully speak about what may cause a deficient ability to feel guilt and remorse, or other features that characterize an individual, but we cannot speak directly about the individual's behavior outside an applied or clinical context. ...


3

I can't say whether Viktor Frankl is respected by modern psychologists on average, or how respected he is. Anecdotally, I have heard of both Frankl and logotherapy, but not enough to know much more than that they exist. The real question, though, is whether there is any empirical support for logotherapy, and overall, the evidence (for or against logotherapy) ...


2

Psychopathy is a diagnosis with high reliability and validity, which is based on research originally begun by psychologist Robert Hare and now continued by many others. It is often used in forensic settings, and its use requires specialized training. Sociopathy isn't a diagnosis and has no generally accepted clinical definition (unless it's in the ICD, ...


2

Generally, therapy is more successful, the more resources a patient brings to the therapy. For example, a generally healthy person will recover quickly from a flu, while an old person with fragile health may even die from it. The same goes for psychotherapy. The more "functional" a person was before he or she developed a psychological disorder, the more ...


2

The Wikipedia article seems to provide a summary of this information with links to the primary literature http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causes_of_schizophrenia#Genetics Concordance rates between monozygotic twins vary in different studies, approximately 50%; whereas dizygotic twins was 17%. Some twin studies (Koskenvuo et al; Hoeffer et al) have ...


2

Since asking the question, I was able to locate a first-person account of monothematic delusion, namely, of denial of ownership of one's own limbs (somatoparaphrenia/asomatognosia). It is due to the neurologist and writer Oliver Sacks, who in his fourth book A Leg to Stand On (1984) described his recovery after a fall in a remote region of Norway in which he ...


2

Obsessions are defined as intrusive and recurring thoughts that an individual finds disturbing or uncontrollable, and are not a good thing. There is a lay use of the word which means something like "a very strong interest," but it is just that: a perfectly normal if very intense interest, usually with no basis in abnormal psychology.



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